Chapter 9(B).docx

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23 Apr 2012
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Psychological Assessment
Chapter 9(B)
- With a few exceptions, clinical psychology since World War II has focused on what is wrong with
people and how to alleviate or diminish a host of symptoms and syndromes
- In recent years, a movement known as positive psychopathology has emerged to redress this
imbalance
- A simple definition of positive psychology is the scientific and practical pursuit of optimal human
functioning
Assessment of Creativity
- In field of creativity there are no acknowledged “gold standards” for assessment. In part, this is
because of the criterion problem- the difficulty in defining creativity
- Creativity arises when the thinker grasps the essential features of a problem and their relation
to a find a solution- the so-called “aha” phenomenon. It is theorized that such insights often
occur after a period of incubation wherein the unconscious mind rearranges the features of the
puzzle even while the conscious mind takes time-off from the problem
- Mednick proposed that creativity is the capacity to combine remote associations; the “Remote
Associates Test” is a index of the remoteness of verbal associations. For each triplet, the
examinee must find a fourth word that fits in the sense of having reasonable associations to the
other three words
- Guilford was one of the first researchers to define creativity in terms of the person when he
asserted that creativity refers to the abilities that are most characteristic of creative people.
Interestingly, the distinguishing characteristics of creative individuals appear to be largely
temperamental, although a certain minimum level of intelligence also is required
- The most enduring definitions of creativity have used the product as the distinguishing sign of
this capacity. According to his approach, creative persons create products such as inventions
that meet certain criteria. These products need novelty, appropriateness, transcendence and
coalescence
- “Divergent thinking” is defined as the kind that goes off in different directions whereas
“convergent thinking” is the production of a single correct answer determined by facts and
reason. Guilford’s “fluency test” measures divergent thinking with items of alternate uses,
consequences and ideational fluency
- “Torrance of tests of creative thinking” is based on Guilford’s model, this tests purports to
assess a global cognitive construct of creativity. The TTCT consists of two parts: the TTCT verbal
and the TTCT-figural
- Creativity is almost always specific to the realm in which it is identified. This specificity poses a
difficult obstacle to general measures of creativity
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