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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 notes - very long

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 13 Applications in Clinical and Counselling Settings
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
oStructured personality tests used in counselling settings that provides
a list of statements and asks the subject to respond true or false to
each
oUsed in career assessments
oTook an hour to respond to 462 items
Tests created to distinguish those with subnormal mental abilities from those
with normal abilities
How do people use their abilities
Nonintellective aspects of human behaviour, typically distinguished from
mental abilities, are called personality characteristics
Personality: the relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behaviour that
characterize an individual and his or her reactions to the environment
Structured personality tests attempt to evaluate ^personality traits,
personality types, personality states, and other aspects of personality, such as
self-concept
Personality traits: refer to relatively enduring dispositions tendencies to act,
think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance and that
distinguish one person from another
Personality types: refers to general descriptions of a person example is an
avoiding type who is someone who has low social interest and low activity and
cop by avoiding social situations
Personality states: refer to emotional reactions that vary from one situation to
another
www.notesolution.com
Self concept: refers to a persons self-definition or, according to C. R. Rogers,
an organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that a person ahs
about himself or herself
Binet said that a persons pattern of intellectual functioning may reveal
information about personality factors
Personality tests were not created until WWI
oIdentify emotionally unstable military recruits
oThere were so many recruits and so the psychiatric interview wouldnt
work fast enough
oPsychologists needed a measure of emotional functioning that would
measure a large amount of people and screen out those that were unfit
for military service
oSelf-report questionnaires: provided a list of statements and required
subjects to respond in some way to each, such as marking true or false to
indicate whether the statement applied to them
oStructured or objective tests are a method of personality assessment for
example respond yes or no to the statement I am happy
oProjective method is for example provide a picture of an inkblot and ask
what might this be
The stimulus is ambiguous and the subject has few guidelines
about what type of response is required
STRATEGIES OF STRUCTURED PERSONALITY-TEST CONSTRUCTION
There are strategies for approaches to the structure of personality testing
These strategies have been disagreed upon based on how it should be
classified, what they should be called and how many distinctly different
strategies exist
At the broadest level, the strategies are deductive and empirical
www.notesolution.com
Deductive strategies include the logical-content and the theoretical approach
Empirical strategies include the criterion-group and the factor analysis
method
Some procedures will combine two or more of these strategies
Deductive Strategies
Use reason and deductive logic to determine the meaning of a test response
The logical-content method has test designers select items on the basis of
simple face validity
In the theoretical approach, test construction is guided by a particular
psychological theory
Logical-Content Strategy
Test designers try to logically deduce the type of content that should measure
the characteristic to be assessed
You want to make sure the content of the test is related to what you are
measuring, if it is logical to ask a certain question
You assume that the test item describes the subjects personality and
behaviour
This is the primary strategy to use
Theoretical Strategy
Begins with theory about the nature of the particular characteristic to be
measured
Items must be consistent with the theory
Every item in a scale be related to the characteristic being measured
Attempt to create a homogenous scale and, toward this end, may use
statistical procedures such as item analysis
Empirical Strategies
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 13 Applications in Clinical and Counselling Settings California Psychological Inventory (CPI) o Structured personality tests used in counselling settings that provides a list of statements and asks the subject to respond true or false to each o Used in career assessments o Took an hour to respond to 462 items Tests created to distinguish those with subnormal mental abilities from those with normal abilities How do people use their abilities Nonintellective aspects of human behaviour, typically distinguished from mental abilities, are called personality characteristics Personality: the relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize an individual and his or her reactions to the environment Structured personality tests attempt to evaluate ^personality traits, personality types, personality states, and other aspects of personality, such as self-concept Personality traits: refer to relatively enduring dispositions tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance and that distinguish one person from another Personality types: refers to general descriptions of a person example is an avoiding type who is someone who has low social interest and low activity and cop by avoiding social situations Personality states: refer to emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another www.notesolution.com Self concept: refers to a persons self-definition or, according to C. R. Rogers, an organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that a person ahs about himself or herself Binet said that a persons pattern of intellectual functioning may reveal information about personality factors Personality tests were not created until WWI o Identify emotionally unstable military recruits o There were so many recruits and so the psychiatric interview wouldnt work fast enough o Psychologists needed a measure of emotional functioning that would measure a large amount of people and screen out those that were unfit for military service o Self-report questionnaires: provided a list of statements and required subjects to respond in some way to each, such as marking true or false to indicate whether the statement applied to them o Structured or objective tests are a method of personality assessment for example respond yes or no to the statement I am happy o Projective method is for example provide a picture of an inkblot and ask what might this be The stimulus is ambiguous and the subject has few guidelines about what type of response is required STRATEGIES OF STRUCTURED PERSONALITY-TEST CONSTRUCTION There are strategies for approaches to the structure of personality testing These strategies have been disagreed upon based on how it should be classified, what they should be called and how many distinctly different strategies exist At the broadest level, the strategies are deductive and empirical www.notesolution.com
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