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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 13: Applications in Clinical and Counselling Settings
Personality characteristics: nonintellective aspects of human behaviour, typically distinguished
from mental abilities
Personality: relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize individual and
their reaction to environment
Personality traits: relatively enduring dispositions- tendencies to act, think, or feel in certain
manner in any given circumstance that distinguish one person from another
Personality types: general descriptions of people
Personality status: emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another
Self-concept: persons self-definition, organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that
person has about self
Development of Personality Testing
Initial attempts to measure personality first emerged at the turn of the 20th century
Theory-driven, not empirically derived, pyschometric properties (e.g., reliability, validity) were not
established
World War I ushered along the evolution of personality tests
importance of predicting adjustment of new recruits to the military based on single dimensions of
personality and behavior
Within 2 decades following WWI, tests evolved to measure multiple dimensions of personality
During the 1930s and 1940s personality testing evolved further and diverged along two
measurement methodologies
oProjective tests
otheory-driven
Designed to probe deeper dimensions of personality
Disadvantage of Personality Tests
Social Desirability
Faking Good
Faking Bad
Random Responding
Two Main Personality Theories
1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called traits”)
characteristics lie on a continuum e.g., the Big Five
2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other)
There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types
Development of Personality Testing
Empirically derived tests (Objective Measures)
omeasures designed using factor-analysis
omeasures created around pre-determined criteria (criterion-referenced)
Objective Personality Measures
Objective measures utilize highly structured response formats
Consist of unambiguous stimulus items
oForced choice (e.g., true/false)
oLikert scale ratings
Result in a quantitative score that can be compared with normative score data
www.notesolution.com
Strategies of Structured Personality-Test Construction
Deductive strategies comprise logical-content and theoretical approach
oLogical-content strategy
Uses reason and deductive logic in development of personality measures
Tries to logically deduce type of content that should measure the characteristic to be
assessed
Assume that test item described subjects personality and behaviour
oTheoretical strategy
Begins with theory about nature of particular characteristic to be measured
Items must be consistent with theory
Demand that every item in scale be related to characteristic being measured
Create homogeneous scale and toward this end, may use statistical procedures such
as item analysis
Empirical strategies comprise criterion-group and factor analysis method. Attempt to use
experimental research to determine empirically meaning of test response
oCriterion-group strategy
Begins with criterion group or collection of individuals who share characteristic
Test constructors select and administer group of items to all people in criterion
group and control group that reps general population
Attempt to locate items that contrast
Once distinguishing items determined for one sample of subjects to rep criterion
group, next step is cross-validate scale by checking how well it distinguished
independent criterion sample- individuals know to possess characteristics to be
measure from control group
If scale significantly distinguishes 2 groups, then have been cross validated
3rd step to conduct additional research to ascertain empirically what it means when
subjects endorse large number of items on particular scale
oFactor analytic strategy
Uses factor analysis to derive empirically basic dimensions of personality
Begin with empirical database consisting of intercorrelation of large number of
items or tests
Prefer term tests for general purposes, inventories, technique, scales, assessment procedures often
preferred
Logical-content strategy
Woodworth Personal Data sheet
oFirst personality test ever developed during WW1
oIdentify military recruits who would be likely to break down in combat
o116 questions- Yes or No
oItems selected from lists of known symptoms of emotional disorders and from questions
asked by psychiatrists in screening interviews
oYielded single score, providing global measure of function
oHad 2 additional features: first, items endorsed by 25% or more of normal sample in scored
direction were excluded from test, reduce the number of false positives- subjects identified
by test as risks but who would most likely be cleared in actual interview. Second, only
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Description
Chapter 13: Applications in Clinical and Counselling Settings Personality characteristics: nonintellective aspects of human behaviour, typically distinguished from mental abilities Personality: relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize individual and their reaction to environment Personality traits: relatively enduring dispositions- tendencies to act, think, or feel in certain manner in any given circumstance that distinguish one person from another Personality types: general descriptions of people Personality status: emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another Self-concept: persons self-definition, organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that person has about self Development of Personality Testing Initial attempts to measure personality first emerged at the turn of the 20th century Theory-driven, not empirically derived, pyschometric properties (e.g., reliability, validity) were not established World War I ushered along the evolution of personality tests importance of predicting adjustment of new recruits to the military based on single dimensions of personality and behavior Within 2 decades following WWI, tests evolved to measure multiple dimensions of personality During the 1930s and 1940s personality testing evolved further and diverged along two measurement methodologies o Projective tests o theory-driven Designed to probe deeper dimensions of personality Disadvantage of Personality Tests Social Desirability Faking Good Faking Bad Random Responding Two Main Personality Theories 1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called traits) characteristics lie on a continuum e.g., the Big Five 2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other) There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types Development of Personality Testing Empirically derived tests (Objective Measures) o measures designed using factor-analysis o measures created around pre-determined criteria (criterion-referenced) Objective Personality Measures Objective measures utilize highly structured response formats Consist of unambiguous stimulus items o Forced choice (e.g., truefalse) o Likert scale ratings Result in a quantitative score that can be compared with normative score data www.notesolution.com
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