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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 14: Projective Personality Tests
Projective Techniques
Allow examinee to respond to vague stimuli with own impressions
Assumption is that examinee will project his unconscious needs, motives, conflicts onto neutral
stimulus
The Projective Hypothesis
When people attempt to understand ambiguous or vague stimulus, interpretation of that stimulus
reflects needs, feelings, experiences, prior conditioning, thought processes
Rorschach inkblot test
Most commonly used
1971: used in 91% of 251 clinical settings survey
Earliest use of inkblots as projective surfaces was Kerners
1896, Binet suggested that inkblots might be used to assess personality
1911, Psychodiagnostik
10: 5 black and white, 2 black, gray, red and 3 pastel colours
Each card administered twice, during free-association, examiner presents cards one at a time,
second phase, inquiry, examiner shows cards again and scores subjects responses: scored according
to at least 5 dimensions- location, determinants, for quality, content, frequency of occurrence
Scoring for location, examiner must determine where subjects perception is located on inkblot,
small picture of each card (location chart) is provided
Exners Comprehensive Scoring System
Notes whether subject used whole blot (W), common detail (D), unusual detail (Dd), other factors,
confabulatory response (DW)
oConfabulatory responses also illustrate idea behind qualitative interpretations
oSubject overgeneralizes from part to whole it looked like my mother because of the eyes
Determine number and percentage of W, D, Dd responses
oSummarized as frequency or percentage, known as quantitative, structural or statistical
aspect of Rorschach as opposed to qualitative aspects (content)
Normal subjects typically produce balance of W, D, Dd responses
Examiner must determine what it was about inkblot that led subject to see particular percept:
determinant
oOne or more of at least 4 properties of inkblot may determine or lead to response:
form/shape, perceived movement, colour, shading
oIf subject uses only the form of blot to determine response, response is scored F, pure form
response
oUse statement such as it looks like, shaped like here are head, hand, legs
oMovement may be human (M), animal (FM), inanimate (m)
oMovement response: cooperative movement- involve positive interaction between 2 or more
humans or animals
Provide information about subjects attitude concerning how people interact
Identifying determinant is most difficult aspect of Rorschach, scoring content is simple: human
(H), animal (A), nature (N)
Form quality is extent to which percept matches stimulus properties of inkblot
oScoring form quality is difficult
oSome experts argue if examiner can also see percept, then response has adequate form
quality, but if examiner cannot see it, then response has poor form quality and scored F-
Thought to tap into deep layers of personality and bring out what is not conscious to test taker
Psychometric Properties
Clinical validation
www.notesolution.com
oBecame widespread in 1940s and 1950s
oGreat success in blind analysis product of few simple tricks
oOne is Barnum effect by Bertram Forer: told students to rate the accuracy of personality
profiles he gave out. Average ratings of 4.2, over 40 % of students said profile was accurate.
The catch is that Forer given the exact same profile he got from book of horoscopes and fit
more people
Interpreting the Rorschach
Uses 5 norms: nonpatient, outpatient nonpsychotic, inpatient character problem, inpatient
depressive, inpatient schizophrenics one
Deviation from norms can mean an invalid protocol, brain damage, emotional problems, or low
mental age
Norms
Unless scores of client can be compared to scores of reference group, they are of no use
Most clinicians who use Rorschach depend on normed carried out by Exner
Overpathologizing
Rorschach or Exners Comprehensive System wrongly identifies more than half of normal people as
emotionally disturbed
Unreliable Scoring
Meta-analysis-statistical procedure in which results of numerous studies are averaged in single,
overall investigation
An Alternative Inkblot Test: The Holtzman
Prime problems of Rorschach: variable number of responses from one subject to another, lack of
standard procedures, lack of alternative form
Holtzman created to meet these difficulties while maintaining advantages of inkblot
Subject permitted to give only one response per card
Administration and scoring procedures are standardized and carefully described
Alternative form is available that correlated will with original test stimuli
Interscorer as well as split half reliabilities are comparable to those found for objective personality
tests
Both forms contain 45 cards, each response may be scored on 22 dimensions
Many dimensions resemble in Rorschach, location, determinant, content
Responses may be scored for factors like anxiety and hostility
Main difficulty is validity
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
1935 by Morgan and Murray
With exception of Rorschach, TAT used more than any other projective test
Based on Murrays theory of needs whereas Rorschach is atheoretical
TAT not billed as diagnostic instrument, more for evaluating human personality characteristics
Based on Murrays theory of 28 human needs: sex, affiliation, dominance
Stimuli, administration, interpretation
oMore structured and less ambiguous that Rorschach
oConsist of pictures that depict variety of scenes
o30 pictures and blank card
oSpecific cards designed for male and females, some appropriate for older and others for
younger
oCard 1: boy sitting at table with violin, boy is contemplating violin, tends to reveal persons
relationship toward parental figures
oAlmost all methods of TAT take into account the hero, needs, press, themes, outcomes
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14: Projective Personality Tests Projective Techniques Allow examinee to respond to vague stimuli with own impressions Assumption is that examinee will project his unconscious needs, motives, conflicts onto neutral stimulus The Projective Hypothesis When people attempt to understand ambiguous or vague stimulus, interpretation of that stimulus reflects needs, feelings, experiences, prior conditioning, thought processes Rorschach inkblot test Most commonly used 1971: used in 91% of 251 clinical settings survey Earliest use of inkblots as projective surfaces was Kerners 1896, Binet suggested that inkblots might be used to assess personality 1911, Psychodiagnostik 10: 5 black and white, 2 black, gray, red and 3 pastel colours Each card administered twice, during free-association, examiner presents cards one at a time, second phase, inquiry, examiner shows cards again and scores subjects responses: scored according to at least 5 dimensions- location, determinants, for quality, content, frequency of occurrence Scoring for location, examiner must determine where subjects perception is located on inkblot, small picture of each card (location chart) is provided Exners Comprehensive Scoring System Notes whether subject used whole blot (W), common detail (D), unusual detail (Dd), other factors, confabulatory response (DW) o Confabulatory responses also illustrate idea behind qualitative interpretations o Subject overgeneralizes from part to whole it looked like my mother because of the eyes Determine number and percentage of W, D, Dd responses o Summarized as frequency or percentage, known as quantitative, structural or statistical aspect of Rorschach as opposed to qualitative aspects (content) Normal subjects typically produce balance of W, D, Dd responses Examiner must determine what it was about inkblot that led subject to see particular percept: determinant o One or more of at least 4 properties of inkblot may determine or lead to response: formshape, perceived movement, colour, shading o If subject uses only the form of blot to determine response, response is scored F, pure form response o Use statement such as it looks like, shaped like here are head, hand, legs o Movement may be human (M), animal (FM), inanimate (m) o Movement response: cooperative movement- involve positive interaction between 2 or more humans or animals Provide information about subjects attitude concerning how people interact Identifying determinant is most difficult aspect of Rorschach, scoring content is simple: human (H), animal (A), nature (N) Form quality is extent to which percept matches stimulus properties of inkblot o Scoring form quality is difficult o Some experts argue if examiner can also see percept, then response has adequate form quality, but if examiner cannot see it, then response has poor form quality and scored F- Thought to tap into deep layers of personality and bring out what is not conscious to test taker Psychometric Properties Clinical validation www.notesolution.com
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