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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 17: Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care
Neuropsychological Assessment
Clinical neuropsychology
oScientific discipline that focuses on psychological impairments of central nervous system
and remediation
oScientific discipline that studies relationship between behaviour and brain functioning of
realms of cognitive, motor, sensory, emotional functioning
oActivities include identification, description, multivariate, quantification, treatment of
diseases of brain and spinal cord
oOverlaps neurology, psychiatry, psychometric testing in following ways: neuropsychology
and neurology both focus on sensations and perceptions and on motor movements
oNeuro and psychometrics both use psychological tests
oNeuro differs because it is finely specialized, focusing on attention, memory, learning,
language and communication, spatial integration, cognitive flexibility
oAttempts to relate brain dysfunction and damage to observable and measurable behavioural
functioning
oDefinition: A clinical neuropsychologist is a professional psychologist trained in the science
of brain-behavior relationships. The clinical neuropsychologist specializes in the application
of assessment and intervention principles based on the scientific study of human behavior
across the lifespan as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the central nervous
system.
Goals of Practice
Assist in diagnosis
Establish baseline to evaluate course/treatment effects
Define profile of strengths and weaknesses
Assist in establishing prognosis
Developmental neuropsychology
oEarlier brain injury may be missed until children reach age where they are challenged with
new types of problems
oBrain plasticity in children
oTrail making tests, children locate numbers scattered on a sheet of paper
oExecutive function includes volition, like forming and executing goal, planning, taking
action to complete task
oIncludes self control, self-monitoring to complete task
oMirsky: 4 factors of mental processing and related them to specific anatomical regions in
brain
Focus execute: childs ability to scan information and respond in meaningful way
Sustain: describes childs capacity to pay close attention for defined interval time
Encode: related to information storage, recall, mental manipulation
Shift: ability to be flexible
oLearning disabilities: problems in speech and reading disorders
oDyslexia: specific reading disorder characterized by difficulties in decoding single words
May have genetic base and may result from difficulties in processing phonemes
oConcussion resolution index (CRI): track recovery following sports related concussion
oDevelopmental difficult field because it requires several levels of assessment
oSeven step model used in development of rehabilitation plans:
Application of formal tests to determine nature of problem
Assessment of environment, such as demands of school
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Formulation of treatment plans, involve prediction of short and long term
consequences of brain problem
Chances that intervention will make a difference
Availability of resources
Development of realistic treatment plan that considers information gained in steps
1-5
Evaluating progress made in course of clinical care
Adult neuropsychology
oTwo best known involve administration of Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska test
batteries
oHalstead-Reitan:
Determining inadequacy in brain function required wide range of tests that
measured characteristics and abilities beyond those targeted by existing
psychological tests
Battery can locate tumours or lesions in right or left hemisphere of brain and in
front or back portion of brain in significant number of cases
Critics say advantage may not be worth effort applying measures
Can assist in localizing injury in either left or right hemisphere of brain
oLuria-Nebraska:
Concept of pluripotentiality: any one center in brain can be involved in several
different functional systems ie. One center in brain may involved in both visual and
tactile senses
269 items that can be administered in approximately 24 hours
Items divided into 11 subsections
Scored by finding standardized performance level for each of 11 subtests
3 scores: pathognomonic scale- highly sensitive to brain dysfunction, other 2 scores
indicate whether dysfunction is in right or left hemisphere of brain
California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)
oRelatively new approach that builds on research in psychological testing, cognitive
psychology, computer science
oDetermines how errors are made in learning tasks
oTo identify different strategies, processes, errors that are associated with specific deficits
oAttempts to link memory deficits with impaired performance on specific tasks for people
who have known neurological problems
oAssess various variables, including levels or recall and recognition, semantic and serial
strategies, serial position effects, learning rates across trails, consistency of item recall
across trails, degree of vulnerability to proactive and retroactive interference, retention of
information over short and long delays, learning errors in recall and recognition
oOne component, subject asked to imagine they are going shopping
oHave to repeat list of items
oAdults with limited learning capacity may do relatively well on early trials but reach
plateau where repeated trails do not reflect improved performance
Automated neuropsychological testing
oNew methods developed to provide quick computerized interpretation of neurological tests
oAutomated neuropsychological metrics (ANAM) is one development
oTo evaluate changes in human performance when people were exposed to difficult
environmental circumstances
oNow widely used in patients with multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers
disease, brain injury, migraine headache
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Description
Chapter 17: Testing in Health Psychology and Health Care Neuropsychological Assessment Clinical neuropsychology o Scientific discipline that focuses on psychological impairments of central nervous system and remediation o Scientific discipline that studies relationship between behaviour and brain functioning of realms of cognitive, motor, sensory, emotional functioning o Activities include identification, description, multivariate, quantification, treatment of diseases of brain and spinal cord o Overlaps neurology, psychiatry, psychometric testing in following ways: neuropsychology and neurology both focus on sensations and perceptions and on motor movements o Neuro and psychometrics both use psychological tests o Neuro differs because it is finely specialized, focusing on attention, memory, learning, language and communication, spatial integration, cognitive flexibility o Attempts to relate brain dysfunction and damage to observable and measurable behavioural functioning o Definition: A clinical neuropsychologist is a professional psychologist trained in the science of brain-behavior relationships. The clinical neuropsychologist specializes in the application of assessment and intervention principles based on the scientific study of human behavior across the lifespan as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. Goals of Practice Assist in diagnosis Establish baseline to evaluate coursetreatment effects Define profile of strengths and weaknesses Assist in establishing prognosis Developmental neuropsychology o Earlier brain injury may be missed until children reach age where they are challenged with new types of problems o Brain plasticity in children o Trail making tests, children locate numbers scattered on a sheet of paper o Executive function includes volition, like forming and executing goal, planning, taking action to complete task o Includes self control, self-monitoring to complete task o Mirsky: 4 factors of mental processing and related them to specific anatomical regions in brain Focus execute: childs ability to scan information and respond in meaningful way Sustain: describes childs capacity to pay close attention for defined interval time Encode: related to information storage, recall, mental manipulation Shift: ability to be flexible o Learning disabilities: problems in speech and reading disorders o Dyslexia: specific reading disorder characterized by difficulties in decoding single words May have genetic base and may result from difficulties in processing phonemes o Concussion resolution index (CRI): track recovery following sports related concussion o Developmental difficult field because it requires several levels of assessment o Seven step model used in development of rehabilitation plans: Application of formal tests to determine nature of problem Assessment of environment, such as demands of school www.notesolution.com
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