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PSYC39H3 (204)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1,2,3,4

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC39H3
Professor
David Nussbaum

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PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
Chapter 1: Introduction
Basic Concepts
What is a Test?
-A test is a measurement device or a technique used to quantify behaviour, or aid in the
understanding and prediction of behaviour
oEx. A spelling bee
-A test measures only a sample of behaviour, and error is always associated with a sampling
process
-Test scores are not perfect measures of a behaviour or characteristic.
-An item is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly (can be scored or evaluated
oEx. Graded, counted, specific questions or problems that make up a test
-A psychological (educational) test: set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of
human beings that pertain to behaviour
oOvert behaviours are observable activity
Ex. How often someone engages in that behaviour
oCovert behaviours cannot be directly observed
Ex. Thoughts and feelings
-Scales relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution
-Test scores may also be related to the state or the specific condition or status, of an individual
Types of Tests
-Individual tests are given to one person at a time only by test administrators
oEx. Psychotherapists see only one person at a time
-Group tests
oEx. Instructor gives everyone in the class a test at the same time
-Ability tests
oAchievement refers to previous learning
oAptitude is the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill
oIntelligence refers to a persons general potential to solve problems (smart”)
Human ability: achievement, aptitude and intelligence
-Personality tests are related to the overt and covert disposition of the individual, they measure
typical behaviour
oStructured personality tests
self-report, true or false
oProjective personality tests
Rorschach test (inkblot stimulus)
-Psychological testing refers to all the possible uses of psychological/educational tests and are
used to evaluate individual differences or variations among individuals
Historical Perspective
Early Antecedents
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-Chinese, civil service testing program more than 4000 years ago
-Test batteries are two or more tests used in conjunction (Han Dynasty)
-Special testing booths (Ming Dynasty)
-James Cattell (mental test)
Experimental Psychology and Psychophysical Measurement
-Scientific method is very useful
-Before psychology, mathematical methods of the mind were developed
-Seguin Form Board Test
oEducate and evaluate the mentally disabled
The Evolution of Intelligence and Standardized Achievement Tests
-First version of the intelligence test: Binet-Simon Scale (1905)
oThis tests most important contribution was the determination of a childs mental age
-A representative sample includes individuals similar to those for whom the test is to be used
-1916: Termans Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scare added momentum to the newly developing
testing movement
-Standardized achievement tests provide MC questions that are standardized on a large sample
to produce norms against which the results of new examines can be compared
Personality Tests: 1920-1940
-Traits are tendencies to act, think, feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance that
distinguish one individual from another
-Basic goals of personality tests is to measure traits
-Structured paper-and-pencil group tests
oMC questions, true + false questions
oWoodworth Personal Data Sheet
-Projective Rorschach inkblot test
-Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) (Murray, 1935)
oMore structured than the inkblot
oMake up story about ambiguous scenes in a picture
The Emergence of New Approaches to Personality Testing
-MMPI began a new era for structured personality tests
oThe problem with them before was that they made too many assumptions about the
meaning of a test response
oMMPI didnt make any of these assumptions
oMeaning was determined by empirical research
-Factor Analysis is a method of finding the minimum # of dimensions
(characteristics/attributes) called factors, to account for a large # of variables
oCan identify how much these variables overlap and whether they can all be accounted
for or subsumed under a single dimension (or factor) ex. Extroversion
oCattell: 16PF (sixteen personality factor questionnaire)
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Chapter 2: Norms and Basic Statistics for Testing
Why We Need Statistics
-Two reasons
oused for purposes of description
oused to make inferences (logical deductions about events that cannot be observed
directly)
gathering and displaying cues (explanatory data analysis)
evaluation of these cues against statistical rules (confirmatory data analysis)
-descriptive statistics are methods used to provide a concise description of a collection of
quantitative information
-inferential statistics are methods used to make inferences from observations of a small group
of people (sample) to a larger group (population)
Scales of Measurement
Properties of Scales
-Magnitude
oProperty of moreness
oA particular instance of the attribute represents more, less, or equal amounts of the
given quantity than does another instance
-Equal Intervals
oDifference b/w two points at any place on the scale has the same meaning as the
difference b/w two other points that differ by the same # of scale units
oThe relationship b/w the measured units and some outcome can be described by a
straight line or a linear equation
-Absolute 0
oObtained when nothing of the property being measured exits
-Types of scales
oNominal scales: name objects, qualitative
Jersey numbers
oOrdinal scale: scale w/ the property of magnitude but not equal intervals or an absolute
0
Ranking objects
oInterval scale: a scale that has the properties of magnitude and equal intervals but not
absolute 0
Temperature in F and C
oRatio scale: has all the properties (magnitude, equal intervals, absolute 0)
Number of yards by running backs on football teams, zero yards=no movement
Speed of travel
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Description
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING Chapter 1: Introduction Basic Concepts What is a Test? - A test is a measurement device or a technique used to quantify behaviour, or aid in the understanding and prediction of behaviour o Ex. A spelling bee - A test measures only a sample of behaviour, and error is always associated with a sampling process - Test scores are not perfect measures of a behaviour or characteristic. - An item is a specific stimulus to which a person responds overtly (can be scored or evaluated o Ex. Graded, counted, specific questions or problems that make up a test - A psychological (educational) test: set of items that are designed to measure characteristics of human beings that pertain to behaviour o Overt behaviours are observable activity Ex. How often someone engages in that behaviour o Covert behaviours cannot be directly observed Ex. Thoughts and feelings - Scales relate raw scores on test items to some defined theoretical or empirical distribution - Test scores may also be related to the state or the specific condition or status, of an individual Types of Tests - Individual tests are given to one person at a time only by test administrators o Ex. Psychotherapists see only one person at a time - Group tests o Ex. Instructor gives everyone in the class a test at the same time - Ability tests o Achievement refers to previous learning o Aptitude is the potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill o Intelligence refers to a persons general potential to solve problems (smart) Human ability: achievement, aptitude and intelligence - Personality tests are related to the overt and covert disposition of the individual, they measure typical behaviour o Structured personality tests self-report, true or false o Projective personality tests Rorschach test (inkblot stimulus) - Psychological testing refers to all the possible uses of psychologicaleducational tests and are used to evaluate individual differences or variations among individuals Historical Perspective Early Antecedents www.notesolution.com
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