PSYC39H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Receiver Operating Characteristic, Social Learning Theory, Young Offender

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Chapter 1:
1) Personal, Interpersonal and Community Reinforcement Model
a. Cognitive social learning theory of crime
b. AKA general personality and social psychology of criminal coduct
c. Following factors influence decision to commit crime (historical & immediate factors):
i. Immediate situation (temptations, facilitators, inhibitors, stressors)
ii. Attitudes supportive of crime
iii. History of criminal beh
iv. Balance of costs/rewards 4 crime
v. Presence of social support 4 crime
vi. Community (family, social economic factors)
vii. Interpersonal (family/child relations, attachment, neglect, abuse, ties 2
criminals)
viii. Personal (early conduct disorder, biological factors like temperament)
ix. Consequences
2) Farrington’s Theory
a. Long-term risk factors (biological, individual, family, peer, school, community & society)
b. INTERACT WITH
c. Short-term risk factors (energizing/inhibiting factors, opportunity, anti-social tendency,
cognitive processes)
d. Influence behavior
Across countries:
o Robbery, theft, incest = CRIMINAL
Canada intent criminal responsibilyt
Determinants of Crime:
o Distal (historical)
o Proximal (immediate/situational)
Meta-Analysis = weighted average of effect size
o 2 dichotomous variables:
Phi correlation
Odds ratio
o 1 continuous + 1 dichotomous variable:
Area under receiver operating curve characteristic
Cohen’s D
B1 coefficient
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) = technique for measuring the accuracy of risk
assessments by examining false positives and true positives across decision thresholds
o Less influenced by decision thresholds and base rate - a standard technique for
comparing across risk measures
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Andrews:
Central 8 risk/need factors:
o Big 4 = major causal variables = major risk factors = 1st order correlates of crime
1) History of anti-social beh
2) Antisocial personality pattern
3) Antisocial cognition
4) Antisocial associates
o Remaining 4 = moderate risk factors, but not major correlates
5) Family/Marital
6) School/Work
7) Leisure/Recreation
8) Substance Abuse
Minor risk factors = 2nd order correlates of crime
o Personal and emotional distress
o Major mental disorder
o Physical health issures
o Fear of punishment
o Physical conditions
o Low IQ
o Social class of origin
o Seriousness of current offence
o Other factors unrelated to offending
**Antisocial attitudes and antisocial associates are more highly correlated w/ criminal conduct than
social class/mental health.
RISKS and NEEDS Assessment modelled after major risk factors
o Used to identify level of criminal risk for:
Decisions purposes
Specific treatment targets
Treatment planning
o Types:
1) Wisconsin Model
Offender Intake Assessment (AKA Dynamic Factor Identification
Analysis) = used by CSC (federal) based on Wisconsin Model
2) Level of Service Inventory
Substance Abuse:
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Document Summary

Consequences: farrington"s theory, long-term risk factors (biological, individual, family, peer, school, community & society, short-term risk factors (energizing/inhibiting factors, opportunity, anti-social tendency, Across countries: robbery, theft, incest = criminal. Determinants of crime: distal (historical, proximal (immediate/situational) Meta-analysis = weighted average of effect size: 2 dichotomous variables: Odds ratio: 1 continuous + 1 dichotomous variable: Central 8 risk/need factors: big 4 = major causal variables = major risk factors = 1st order correlates of crime. 4) antisocial associates: remaining 4 = moderate risk factors, but not major correlates. **antisocial attitudes and antisocial associates are more highly correlated w/ criminal conduct than social class/mental health. Risks and needs assessment modelled after major risk factors: used to identify level of criminal risk for: Offender intake assessment (aka dynamic factor identification. Analysis) = used by csc (federal) based on wisconsin model. Substance abuse = moderate risk factor = modest effect sizes thru intervention.

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