Chapter 7 Notes
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Chapter 7: Structure or Function
•Functional psychology and study of animals more pop. In at beginning of 20th cent.
Edward B. Titchener
•Believed psych was different point of view of physics
•Believed introspection was best method
oIntrospection: describing own experience
•Implies psych. Is sum of experience dependent on nervous system
•Psychophysical parallelism: experience runs at same time as nervous system,
complement each other, do not cause.
•Believed psych was study of generalized human mind
oExcluded specific cases (e.g. abnormal)
•Believed in using experimentation, introspection, studying mind
•Major contribution was clearly defining view of psych.
Structuralism (1st phase)
•Structuralism: explores basics of structures of mind
•Differed between structural and functional psych (like bio, structure vs. function of
oApplied to consciousness, understand what is first before what it does
•Believed elementary of consciousness was: sensations, images and affection
Titchener’s Experimental Psychology (2nd phase)
•Wrote Experimental Psychology: A manual of Laboratory Practice
oManual for experimental psych.
•students had to be trained to use proper terminology
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•Stimulus error: describing object rather than experience
•Experimental psych was split into qualitative and quantitative
oQualitative – introspection, ass. of ideas
oQuantitative – psychophysical
Titchener and the Imageless Thought Controversy (3rd phase)
•Wurzburgers believed introspection no better than imageless thoughts, but
Titchener believed thoughts always paired with images
oArgued “imageless thoughts” had sensations, so weren’t imageless
oInfluenced jacobson’s progressive relaxation technique
Titchener and the Dimensions of Consciousness (4th phase)
•Abstract approach to studying consciousness
oE.g. Dimensions of consciousnesses
Intensity (strength) considered phenomenological
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