Chapter 1

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Published on 23 Jun 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC85H3
Chapter 1: Psychology and History
Studying the History
Historiog raphy
oExamine variety of ways in which historians have written history
Most inf luential modern history of psychology written by
Edwin G. Boring
Concerned itself primarily with growth of s cientific, experimental side of psychology since 19
th
century
Noted that it was impossible to understand these developments without placing them in own historical
context
Person or Zeitgeist?
Boring recognized two approaches to histor y
1. Emphasized role of creative individual in moving histor y along
2. Necessary to understand each persons work in relation to cultural context within which it takes place
Cultural context called Zeitgeist, “spirit of the times
Ixions Wheel or Jacobs Ladder?
Frank Manuel- progressive vs. cyclical
Ixion and Jacob be taken as personifications of this polarity
oIxion was f igure in ancient Greek mythology who was condemned to rotate forever on wheel of
fire
Spiral may be useful symbol of such a process in which ideas recur, but at higher and higher levels
The New History of Science
Many historians and philosophers of science argues that process of scientific inquiry contains subjective
aspect
Thomas Kuhn- development of these disciplines had not been smooth
oNot that they had simply grown and developed by accumulating data that guided development of
adequate theory
Paradigm: set of fundamental beliefs that guide workers in scientific discipline
Revolutionary periods occur in which new paradigm emerging and old paradigm being overthrown
oDarwins theor y of evolution in 19
th
century
Kuhn argued that paradigms shape scientists’ view of world
oParadigm clashes: fundamentally different ways of interpreting data exist
oEstablishing of single paradigm means that discipline becomes normal science in which workers
share a united view of what constitutes proper problems and methods for their discipline
Feminism and Psychology of Women
Identify distor tions and biases in psychology
oNaomi Weisstein
Bernstein and Russo- contributions of women to psychology had not been acknowledged and call for
changes to psychology cur riculum
Furomoto-psychology of women presented from masculine perspective, not from women themselves
Kimball-feminist psychologists worked with 2 different traditions
oEmphasized similarities between genders and discounter importance of differences between them
oEmphasized positive humans characteristics that have been undervalued because they are
associated with women and with symbolic feminine
Evelyn Fox Keller- traditional accounts of science tended to ignore role played by factors such as
intuition, empathy, personal engagement
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Chapter 1: psychology and history: examine variety of ways in which historians have written history, most influential modern history of psychology written by. Edwin g. boring: concerned itself primarily with growth of scientific, experimental side of psychology since 19th century, noted that it was impossible to understand these developments without placing them in own historical context. Person or zeitgeist: boring recognized two approaches to history, emphasized role of creative individual in moving history along, necessary to understand each person"s work in relation to cultural context within which it takes place.  cultural context called zeitgeist, spirit of the times . Ixion"s wheel or jacob"s ladder: frank manuel- progressive vs. cyclical.  example, british empiricism: endogenic means coming from inside, refers to those psychologists who believe that humans harbour inherent tendencies, social constructionists acknowledged limitations of both endogenic and exogenic perspectives.