Standardization the attempt to keep all aspects of the experimental procedure the same for all participants. Researcher must decide how each aspect of the procedure is to be handled. Imperfect standardization means uncertainty it is no longer clear exactly what a given conditions consists of, no longer clear how to interpret the results: threatens internal validity, but it is hard to achieve most of the time. Need experience to get better standardization: general experience comes with practice, specific experience can come with pilot testing, pilot testing e(cid:454)pe(cid:396)i(cid:373)e(cid:374)ti(cid:374)g (cid:449)ith a(cid:374)d p(cid:396)a(cid:272)ti(cid:272)i(cid:374)g o(cid:374)e(cid:859)s p(cid:396)ospe(cid:272)ti(cid:448)e p(cid:396)o(cid:272)edu(cid:396)es (cid:271)efo(cid:396)e beginning the actual study. Helps researcher become smooth and assured in delivering instructions and interacting with participants. Important point is not to make everything the same for everyone, but to ensure that any potential biasing factors are equally distributed across the groups being compared. Exploratory research research whose goal is to explore, break new research ground, attach some little-studied problem in some new and non-predetermined way.