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Canada (158,423)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

EMOTION AND MOTIVATION CHAPTER 8 NOTES  Emotions important for motivation, social interaction, showing facial expressions, and detecting the feeling of others  Essential feature of all emotions is the experience of it  Emotions feel like something and what it feels like defines it  Multidimensional scaling= rating the similarity of one emotion to another  This mapping of emotions can also show how each emotion varies from one another  EMOTION: A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity  2 underlying dimensions: arousal and valence  Need to understand experience and physiological activity relation to understand emotion DIFFERENT THEORIES OF HOW PHYSIOLOGICAL AND EMOTION CONNECT  William James thought first see, then body reacts (muscles, heart) and THEN feel fear, the physiological response  Thought that each unique emotional experience was the result of a unique pattern of physiological responses  Without the body reaction will be no fear  Similar to James-Lange theory  Carl Lange thought of it  JAMES LANGE THEORY- A theory which asserts that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain.  Emotional experience is the consequence not the CAUSE of physiological reactions  James' student = Walter Cannon and his student = Philip Bard  Cannon disagreed and with student Philip created new theory  CANNON-BARD THEORY- a theory which asserts that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain  Basically trigger both emotion and body reaction at the same time  Why Cannon's theory? o Autonomic nervous system react too slow for rapid emotional experience o Eg. Blush o Second, if people can't tell own heart beat faster, then how do we know change in emotion? o Third o Fourth, not enough unique automatic activity for all the unique emotional experiences o If different emotions associated with one automatic activity then how can tell which emotion from that one activity? o Not enough distinct body reactions to wide range of emotions o While James and Lange thought different emotions= different experiences of different patterns of body activity  Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer thought different emotions= different interpretation of the same pattern of body activity. CALLED UNDIFFERENTIATED PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL  TWO FACTOR THEORY- a theory which asserts that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal (Schachter and Singer's theory) o So first cause general body arousal (pounding heart), then mind goes "why?" and interprets reason which leads to emotion o So basically mind interprets emotion based on context o If around you is scary = fear o If around is happy = excitement o Both have pounding heart  In recent study, when people are aroused, exercise, attractive people= more attractive, funny= even more funny  Even if they THINK they are aroused works  So two factor model is right  People make inferences about the causes of their arousal and that these inferences influence their emotional experience  But James and Lange also right about physiological responses = different for every emotion  Unique to a certain emotion = physiological responses  But Cannon and Bard also right about people not sensitive about these changes so people have to make inferences THE SCIENCE OF IT  Amygdala= producing emotions such as fear  Brain must first decide what to be afraid of = appraisal  APPRAISAL= an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus  Amygdala= critical for making appraisal  If no visual go to amygdala then not activated  Amydala = fast and sensitive threat detector  Activated by potential threatening stimuli  2 simultaneous path of fear  Slow and fast path way.  Fast path= thalamus to amygdala  Slow path= thalamus to cortex then amygdala  Fast= already feel fear before know what it is and deciding if it is a threat, if yes initiates body reactions of fear  Slow path= cortex try to figure out what is threat and importance  Cortex takes longer, then send signal to Amygdala to stay in fear or not  When instructed to feel something, increase in amygdala and less in cortex  Asked to INHIBIT then opposite way around  Emotion important for flight and flee  When in fear only see low spatial frequency  Low spatial frequency help us decide whether to flee or stay still  High spatial frequency help us see fine detail  Fear helps us momentarily see only the big detail and not the fine detail in order to survive THE REGULATION OF EMOTION  EMOTION REGULATION: The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to influence one's emotional experience  Usually attempt to cheer up  Use different methods such as behavioral strategies (doing distracting activities) or cognitive strategies (not think of unwanted thing)  Best way to cheer up is REAPPRAISAL  REAPPRAISAL: changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion- eliciting stimulus  How it works is associate sad thing with a happy thing  And willfully turn down activity of own amygadalae  Important for both mental and physical health  And if not able to reappraise events because of the person (like depression)  EXPRESSIONS CAN CAUSE EMOTIONS EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION  EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION: any observable sign of an emotional state  Can tell the way someone feels from way they talk, way they walk, and touch  Face has 43 muscles to form 10,000 unique configurations (facial emotions)  Combination of specific action units = specific emotion  Lips upwards, wrinkle around eye = happy action units 6 and 12 COMMUNICATIVE EXPRESSION  Charles Darwin says there is an evolutionary significance of emotional expressions  Humans and nonhumans share same facial and posture  To express and communicate= nonverbal language  Darwin thought this but only can happen if everyone knows this "language"  UNIVERSALITY HYPOTHESIS: the hypothesis that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone  All people from different cultures understand this nonverbal language  Even Fore who had little human communication knew, but could not tell apart surprise  Second evidence= people with little human interaction (new born babies, blind people) all make the same facial expressions  6 main universal expressions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise  Other ones are also universal  Words are symbols and facial expressions are signs  Facial expressions are not arbitrary symbols of emotion  Signs of emotion because signs are caused by things they signify  Feeling of happiness causes smile  Context of expression tells us what expression means  Emotional experiences can cause emotional expressions  FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS: emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify  If make a happy face, they will feel happy  Because just smiling changes temperature of brain  But most think smiles strongly associated through experience  Help explain why people are good at recognising expressions of others  We can also imitate others emotions unconsciously, see smile, we smile  We do this because it helps us understand other people's emotions DECEPTIVE EXPRESSION  There are display rules, such as can't show some emotions to superiors  DISPLAY RULES: are the norms for the control of emotional expression  Several techniques: o Intensification: seem more of one emotion: seem more happy o De-intensification: Try to look less of one emotion: seem not that sad o Masking: expression one emotion instead of another: sad instead of delight for poker o Neutralizing: show no emotion at all: poker  Different cultures have different display rules  Also help us know why we recognize facial expressions of our own cultures better  Sometimes hard to control our expressions  Darwin: "muscles of the face which are least obedient to the will, will sometimes alone betray a slight and passing emotion"  How to tell if sincere? o Morphology: genuine smile has crinkles around the eyes o Symmetry: genuine smile is symmetrical where insincere smile is lopsided o Duration: Shorter or longer smile is insincere o Temporal patterning: insincere expressions are abrupt on and off  Also other things to tell if people are telling the truth, like superfluous detail, spontaneous correction, and expressions of self doubt  Humans not able to detect lies well  Strong bias and some people don't know what to look for in liars  Can machines do a better job?  Polygraph is a lie detector, has a better than chance success rate  Error rate is still high  Neither people or machines are good at detecting liars MOTIVATION!!!!  MOTIVATION: refers to the purpose for or psychological cause of an action  Humans act because emotions move them  Emotions provide information about world and are objectives toward what people strive  Temporal lobe (recognize faces) and limbic system (where emotions are generated)  If served, see face but don't feel the "warmth" the emotion with it  Moods effect our outlook in life  Emotion is used to choose an option, we "feel" what is the right one  HEDONIC PRINCIPLE: the claim that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain  Created by Aristotle: pleasure over pain principle  This principle help us explain human motivation  Pleasure is GOOD  Emotion ranges from good to bad and our goal is to keep it as close to good according to this principle  Even if we endure bad things it is because we believe there will be more good because of it THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MOTIVATION  What pushes us to do to the good?  Instinct and drive  Nature gives us certain motivations and experience gives us other  Some behaviourist think instinct is not of the mind and should explained by external stimuli  Behaviourist also believe that all emotions are learned not innate  New behaviourist believe that if bodies detect low stat (eg hunger) create signal to fulfill hunger  HOMEOSTASIS- the tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state  Need to maintain precise levels and if low send signal to fix it  The signals are DRIVES: an internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality  Hunger= drive, drive= internal state  Change internal state BASIC MOTIVATIONS  Abraham Maslow believed that we have needs and we need to fulfill some needs before we can fulfill/ experience other needs  Suggested that people don't experience higher needs until needs below are
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