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Psychology (9,545)
PSYA01H3 (1,192)
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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Learning.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 7 Learning Learning - involves the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. Classical Conditioning : One Thing Leads to Another  classic conditioning : a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response. o unconditioned stimulus (US) : When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response o unconditioned response (UR) : A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus. o conditioned stimulus (CS) : A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. o conditioned response (CR) : A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus. o acquisition : The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together.  second-order conditioning : Conditioning where the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning.  extinction : the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented.  spontaneous recovery : the tendency of a learned behaviour to recover from extinction after a rest period.  generalization : A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition.  discrimination : the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.  delayed conditioning : the CS is presented before the US and it stays on until the US is presented. (ex. a bell rings and continues to ring until the food is presented)  trace conditioning : discrete event is presented, the US occurs. Shorter the interval the better but still not as effective. (ex. the bell begins ringing and ends just before the food is presented.)  biological preparedness : A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others.  Different parts of the brain are involved in different types of classical conditioning: the cerebellum in delay conditioning, the hippocampus in trace conditioning, and the amygdala in fear conditioning. Operant Conditioning : Reinforcements from the Environment  operant conditioning : A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behaviour determine whether it will be repeated in the future.  law of effect : behaviors that are followed by "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated.  operant behavior : Behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment.  reinforcer : Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.  punisher : Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.  over justification effect : When external rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behaviour. (ex. drawing for pleasure vs. drawing for monetary compensation)  fixed interval schedule (FI) : reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.  variable interval schedule (VI) : An operant conditioning principle in which behaviour is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.  fixed ratio schedule (FR) : An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. (ex. buy 10 get 1 free)  variable ratio schedule (VR) :An operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. (lottery, slot machines)  intermittent reinforcement : An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement. o the more irregular and intermittent a schedule is, the more difficult it becomes for an organism to detect when it has actually been placed on extinction.  intermittent-reinforcement effect : The fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.  shaping : Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a f
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