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Chapter 1

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Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In Descartes's view, animals were nothing more than 1) A) mechanical devices. B) creations of God to be used to satisfy humankind's needs and pleasures. C) spirits. D) creatures controlled by animism. E) dualistic entities that serve few, if any, useful functions. 2) According to Descartes, the movements of the body are caused by 2) A) spirits within the mind that travel through the nervous system. B) the flow of fluid from the brain to the nerves that then cause the muscles to contract. C) electrical flow through the nerves to the muscles. D) stimulation of the pineal body to release specific chemicals that then travel to the appropriate set of muscles. E) specific commands from the brain that cause specific muscles to move. 3) According to Descartes, humans consist of __________,which is consistent with his __________ 3) perspective. A) mind and matter; dualist B) senses; empiricist C) mind; rationalist D) mind; reflexive E) matter; materialist 4) Mill differed from Descartes because he suggested __________ whereas Descartes suggested 4) __________. A) fluid from the brain creates action; human will creates action B) the body controls the mind; the mind controls the body C) truth can be discovered through reason; truth can be discovered through observation D) the mind is composed of matter; only the body is composed of matter E) the mind is observable; the mind is not observable 1 5) One important implication of the doctrine of specific nerve energies was that 5) A) the mind is made of nerves. B) electrical stimulation of the brain could produce lasting damage. C) nerves communicate unidirectionally from the brain to different parts of the body. D) all nerves ultimately lead to the brain. E) different parts of the brain may have different functions. 6) To ensure objectivity psychology depends on 6) A) the mathematical model. B) the scientific method. C) logic. D) historical precedent. 7) Helmholtz abandoned his attempt to measure the speed of a person's reaction to physical stimuli 7) because A) the Church objected to the study of the human mind. B) the testing procedure raised ethical issues. C) self reports proved more reliable. D) there was too much individual variability. 8) The text defines psychology as the 8) A) study of the mind. B) science of behavior. C) study of behavior, cognition, and emotion. D) study of the psyche. E) study of the brain. 9) The psychologist most closely associated with the rise of functionalism was 9) A) Watson. B) James. C) Baldwin. D) Freud. E) Wundt. 10) __________ argued that the mind is like a "cleaned slate" at birth and subsequently is written upon 10) by experience. A) Mill B) Berkeley C) Descartes D) James E) Locke 11) The first step in explaining behavior involves __________ it. 11) A) discovering B) demonstrating C) describing D) debating E) discussing 2 12) The ultimate goal of psychology is to 12) A) solve the problems of humankind. B) understand human behavior. C) control behavior. D) discover how the brain controls behavior. E) explore the human psyche. 13) Psychology as a science began in __________ in the __________. 13) A) Canada; late nineteenth century B) Germany; late nineteenth century C) England; early twentieth century D) the United States; early nineteenth century E) France; middle nineteenth century 14) According to Descartes, to understand the world, one must use observation and reason in order to 14) A) reconcile human experience with God's revelations. B) understand how it is constructed. C) discover its spiritual nature. D) identify the levels of the world's reality. E) explore the unconscious processes that are part of the world. 15) In solving problems, community psychologists focus on changing __________ whereas clinical 15) psychologists focus on changing __________. A) the organization; the environment B) the individual; the organization C) the social system; the individual D) the environment; the organization E) attitudes; health 16) __________ psychologists are involved in the design of more efficient and safer machines. 16) A) Forensic B) Organizational C) Engineering D) Health E) Consumer 3 17) The idea that behavior that produces a favorable outcome is likely to be repeated is embodied in 17) the A) doctrine of specific nerve energies. B) Pavlov's concept of psychic reflexes. C) Baldwin effect. D) structuralists' use of introspection. E) law of effect. 18) Explaining behavior in terms of inferred mental processes such as attention, perception, and 18) thinking is most consistent with A) cognitive psychology. B) behavior analysis. C) comparative psychology. D) physiological psychology. E) cognitive neuroscience. 19) You are a psychologist who wants to explain the phenomenon of road rage. Your first step would 19) involve __________ it. A) demonstrating B) debating C) . discovering D) discussing E) describing 20) The philosophical view that objects such as the sun, moon, trees, and rocks possess spirits is known 20) as A) environmentalism. B) spiritualism. C) animism. D) dualism. E) monism. 21) The primary interest of __________ psychologists to promote healthy behavior and lifestyles in 21) order to prevent illness. A) community B) health C) consumer D) school E) clinical 4 22) A psychologist who asks individual participants to describe the elements of their perceptual 22) responses as stimuli are presented to them is requiring them to engage in A) unconscious observation. B) rational analysis. C) introspection. D) reflection. E) inference. 23) Descartes is to __________ as Locke is to __________. 23) A) rationalism; empiricism B) dualism; animism C) animism; empiricism D) rationalism; dualism E) materialism; rationalism 24) Through the postmortem study of the brains of people who have experienced brain injury or 24) damage, it is possible to correlate specific behaviors with specific regions of the brain. Psychologists and physiologists who study the relationship of behavior and brain function in this way are building upon the earlier work of A) Galvani. B) Helmholtz. C) Flourens. D) Broca. E) Mu¨ler. 25) The area of psychology that is likely to involve, among other things, the study of cognitive, 25) physiological, and social changes that occur as people grow older is __________ psychology. A) physiological B) developmental C) social D) clinical E) personality 5 26) Dr. McGlynn is a psychologist who works for a large automobile maker designing in das- 26) displays. Dr. McGlynn is mostly like a(n) __________ psychologist. A) organizational B) forensic C) engineering D) consumer E) health 27) The philosopher who rejected the notion that ideas were innate in the human mind was 27) A) Descartes. B) Locke. C) James. D) Berkeley. E) Mill. 28) Rosemary, a first-year graduate student in psychology, believes that human beings are capable of 28) positive growth and can make their own choices. She is most likely to be attracted to the __________ approach to psychology. A) cognitive B) behaviorist C) humanistic D) psychodynamic E) Gestalt 29) The area of psychological research that is most likely to examine the evolution of adaptive 29) behavior in a given species is A) behavior analysis. B) cognitive psychology. C) developmental psychology. D) physiological psychology. E) comparative psychology. 30) That Germany was the birthplace of psychology can be credited to all of the following EXCEPT 30) A) German universities were well financed. B) experimental physiology was well established. C) the German medical establishment was very supportive of psychology. D) German academic tradition emphasized a scientific approach generally. E) German scholars were receptive to the possibility of studying the mind scientifically. 6 31) Physiological psychology studies the relationship between __________ and behavior whereas 31) behavior analysis studies that between __________ and behavior. A) age; personality B) the nervous system; the environment C) the chemistry; the physics D) cognition; genes E) drugs; emotions 32) The method of experimental ablation was pioneered by 32) A) Helmholtz. B) Flourens. C) Fritsch and Hitzig. D) Muller. ¨ E) Broca. 33) Donald Hebb believed that both behavior and mental phenomena could be related directly to 33) A) information processing. B) cognitive organization. C) self-realization. D) environmental influences. E) brain activity 34) Wundt's approach to investigating psychological phenomena was labeled 34) A) Gestalt psychology. B) psychophysics. C) functionalism. D) structural-functionalism. E) structuralism. 35) __________ is the area of psychology that studies how the nervous system and its interactions with 35) glands that secrete hormones affect behavior. A) Behavior analysis B) Comparative psychology C) Psychophysiology D) Social psychology E) Physiological psychology 7 36) The idea that a person's behavior is controlled by his or her own will is more closely aligned with 36) __________ than it is with __________. A) humanistic psychology; dualism B) structuralism; functionalism C) animism; the scientific method D) empiricism; animism E) behaviorism; humanistic psychology 37) Structuralism is to __________ as functionalism is to __________. 37) A) introspection; the consequences of behavior B) unnobservable behavior; consciousness C) the physiological basis of behavior; the evolutionary basis of behavior D) the elements of consciousness; the purpose of consciousness E) consciousness; memory 38) The idea that all reality can be divided into either mind or matter is called 38) A) rationalism. B) realism. C) dualism. D) empiricism. E) materialism. 39) Kathleen trains her dog by giving him a treat every time he obeys and scolding him when he 39) disobeys. Her method of training is most closely related to A) the law of effect. B) Pavlov's psychic reflexes. C) Gestalt principles of organization. D) functionalism. E) the doctrine of specific nerve energies. 40) Charles Darwin's theory of evolution had its greatest impact on which of the early schools of 40) psychology? A) functionalism B) humanistic psychology C) behaviorism D) Gestalt psychology E) structuralism 8 41) The computer provides the primary model of the human brain for most __________ psychologists 41) A) humanistic B) behaviorist C) Gestalt D) psychodynamic E) cognitive 42) Dr. Hardy is a follower of Freud's psychodynamic theory. Like Wundt he emphasizes __________, 42) but unlike Wundt, he emphasizes __________. A) the biological basis of behavior; the material basis of the mind B) organization of the mind; importance of information processing C) introspective methodology; structures of the mind D) functions of the mind; unconscious processes E) structures of the mind; functions of the mind 43) Freud's approach to understanding human behavior was based on 43) A) his own scientific research. B) Wundt's and James's writings on human behavior. C) applying the scientific method to large groups of subjects. D) his negative reaction to Skinner's proposal that all human behavior is caused by environmental events. E) his observation of patients. 44) __________ is the area of psychological research that focuses on the adaptive significance of 44) behaviors. For example, it studies how cognitive or social features of human behavior may have provided early humans with a competitive advantage over other species. A) Evolutionary psychology B) Social psychology C) Cross -ultural psychology D) Personality psychology E) Developmental psychology 45) Behaviorists after Thorndike rejected his mentalistic terminology, such as 45) A) "punishment." B) "reinforcement." C) "satisfaction." D) "stimulus." E) "conditioning." 9 46) The doctrine of specific nerve energies is most closely associated with 46) A) Mul¨er. B) Galvani. C) Helmholtz. D) Descartes. E) Flourens. 47) Stephen Kosslyn showed that it took longer for a subject to answer a question about a drawing that 47) had been memorized if the subject was asked about a part of the drawing on which he or she was not focusing. This result strongly suggests that mental images are A) scanned by the subject. B) fragmented. C) fluid. D) dynamic. E) largley unconscious. 48) Whereas __________ psychologists are likely to be employed in a variety of organizational settings, 48) __________ are most likely to be found in one type of setting. A) health; school B) engineering; clinical C) community; health D) consumer; organizational E) forensic; consumer 49) Dr. Fleming is a psychologist who develops tests used to assess behavioral and cognitive problems 49) caused by abnormal brain processes. Dr. Fleming's area of research is most likely A) behavior analysis. B) physiological psychology. C) comparative psychology. D) cognitive neuroscience. E) behavior genetics. 50) Which of the following approaches to psychology rejected the idea that mental events are an 50) appropriate subject matter for psychology? A) structuralism B) Gestalt psychology C) functionalism D) behaviorism E) cognitive psychology 10 51) Based on his observations of moving statues, Descartes formulated a(n) __________ model of 51) reflexes. A) electrical B) magnetic C) mechanical D) psychological E) chemical 52) The study of mental operations, as opposed to the study of mental structures, is the way that James 52) Angell defined A) behaviorism. B) Gestalt psychology. C) structuralism. D) functionalism. E) psychology. 53) Helmholtz's research on human reaction time to stimuli did not produce laws like those of physics 53) because A) the speed of the nerve impulse was so slow. B) the reaction times from person to person are too similar. C) he used the wrong stimuli. D) physics required measurements that were too small. E) the reaction times from person to person are too different. 54) Margaret Floy Washburn suggested that introspection 54) A) be regarded as a form of behavior. B) does not help us understand the process of mental life. C) could be useful in certain situations. D) be regarded as essentially useless as a scientific procedure. 55) __________ argued that knowledge of events in the world also requires inferences based on the 55) accumulation of past experiences. A) Descartes B) Mill C) Berkeley D) James E) Locke 11 56) __________ is the area of psychological research that investigates the effects of environmental 56) events on behavior, particularly the relationship between a behavior and its environmental consequences. A) Developmental psychology B) Behavior genetics C) Behavior analysis D) Cognitive psychology E) Social psychology 57) If a psychologist uses the theory of natural selection as a guiding principle in accounting for human 57) behavior in terms of its adaptive significance, his or her research area is most likely to be __________ psychology. A) cross-cultural B) developmental C) social D) evolutionary E) comparative 58) Dr. El Sheikh is a psychologist who specializes in identifying and treating behavioral problems that 58) are caused by nervous system disorders or injury. Dr. El Sheikh is most likely to be a(n) A) clinical neuropsychologist. B) community psychologist. C) community parapsychologist. D) health psychologist. E) cognitive neuroscientist. 59) Pavlov's efforts to train dogs to respond in new ways to previously arbitrary stimuli suggested a 59) way to explain how animals learn A) about various types of food. B) to overcome bad habits. C) to recognize each other. D) from the consequences of their actions. E) cause-and -ffect relations in the environment. 60) Even though they may be interested in the same behavior, different psychologists may study it at 60) different __________ of explanation. A) degrees B) directions C) zones D) levels E) layers 12 61) The idea that behavior and other natural phenomena are subject to physical laws is embodied in 61) A) animism. B) naturalism. C) physicalism. D) monism. E) the scientific method. 62) James Mill is known for his view that the mind and the body are 62) A) observable. B) inseparable. C) material. D) reflexive. E) dualistic. 63) Cognitive psychology is the study of 63) A) behavior. B) human interaction. C) mental processes and complex behavior. D) brain structures and behavior. E) individual differences in thought and behavior. 64) A fairly simple system that is based on established principles and can do some of the things that 64) more complex systems can do is called a A) network. B) model. C) exemplar. D) microsystem. E) subsystem. 65) At the root of most major human problems such as war, , poverty, pollution, drug addiction, and 65) crime is A) human behavior. B) need. C) selfishness. D) sin. E) greed. 13 66) Broca's research suggested that damage to the __________ causes deficits in __________. 66) A) right side of the brain; speaking B) rear of the brain; seeing C) left side of the brain; speaking D) right side of the brain; hearing E) front part of the brain; tasting 67) Dr. Shapiro has developed a strain of rats that is especially susceptible to the effects of certain 67) drugs. These rats become addicted more easily than other strains. Most likely, Dr. Shapiro's area of research is A) behavior genetics. B) developmental psychology. C) behavior analysis. D) cognitive neuroscience. E) cognitive psychology. 68) A German word Gestalt is translated as 68) A) incomplete form. B) unconscious perception. C) complete perception. D) unified form. E) shapeless form. 69) Early North American psychologists, such as Baldwin and Calkins, placed heavy emphasis on 69) A) philosophical foundations of psychology. B) psychology's relationship to the new social sciences. C) laboratory experimentation and observation. D) a mixture of Wundtian and Freudian approaches. E) improving human welfare. 70) Pierre Flourens developed the method of experimental ablation 70) A) to study the functions of different parts of the brain. B) to stimulate the cerebral cortex. C) and began the field of psychophysics. D) to demonstrate the reversibility of brain damage. 14 71) Marni believes that she can discover truth by using reason and logical thinking. Like Descartes, she 71) advocates A) animism. B) rationalism. C) materialism. D) dualism. E) empiricism. 72) Descartes argued that 72) A) mind and matter interact. B) dualism explains the origins of the mind. C) the pineal body is the physical housing for the mind. D) the body is dependent on the mind. E) the mind is made of ordinary matter. 73) Thorndike formulated the law of effect while studying the behavior of 73) A) children. B) animals. C) college students. D) factory workers. E) U.S. Navy personnel. 74) __________ disproved Descartes' hydraulic model of muscle contraction by showing that they 74)
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