Textbook Notes (363,569)
Canada (158,433)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 2 Psy a01 LECTURE 2.1 Dogmatism- tendency for people to cling to their assumptions Theories & Hypotheses: The scientific method: a set of principles about appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence Theory- a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon - Data is seen, so a theory is made to explain why this is so - The best theory is when you can test it, and it has a potential notion can it could be wrong. That there is something that could falsify the theory - When evidence is consistent with a theory it increases our confidence in it, but it never makes us completely certain. Hypothesis: predictions that can be tested in a way that might prove them to be incorrect (i.e., falsifiable!) - Muybrudge said, “we have to do more than just look if we want to know the truth about the world Empiricism- belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation - Empiricism is the right approach - it requires the empirical method: set of rules and techniques for observation Terminology - The term “variable” is used to refer to anything that can take on multiple “values” - “Eye Color”, for example, can have the values of “green”, “blue”, “brown”, etc … it is a categorical variable (or is it?) - “Height” is another variable, it is a continuous variable because its values lie on a continuum (or do they?) - In actuality, whether a variable is categorical or continuous often depends on how it is measured.  Variable: anything that can take on a multiple value  Example: eye color, because it can have a value of more than one color. Blue, green, brown  Categorical vs. Continuous: eye color is categorical. People fall into a category; they have a specific color of eye.  Height is continuum, the values follow a continuum. Go from low number-high number. This distinction is important is because analysis is different for each.  Color could also be continuous. Different shades of color. 3 things that make people difficult to study: 1. Complexity - Human brain is extremely complicated - Difficult to understand how millions of neurons in the brain give rise to thoughts, feelings and actions 2. Variability - no two individuals are the same 3. Reactivity - people act a different way when they are being observed - when they know they are being studied, they don’t always behave as they usually would Scientists have designed methods to meet these challenges: 1) Methods of explanation 2) Method of observation Measurement - requirement: - define the property we wish to measure - Then find a way to detect it Defining and Detecting Operational definition: a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms Measure: a device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers electromyograph: a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person’s skin Validity: the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related Power: the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition Demand characteristics: those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should  one way to avoid demand characteristics is to measure behaviors that are unable or unlikely to control, such as facial expressions, blood pressure, reaction times Naturalistic observation: a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments techniques used to avoid influence of expectation on observation - double blind: an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed - frequency distribution: a graphical representation of measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made - normal distribution: a mathematically defined frequency distribution in which more measurements are concentrated around the middle - mode: the value of the most frequently observed measurement - mean: the average value of all the measurements o the mean is dangerous to use when there are extreme values median: the value that is in the middle Measures of Variability - MAD (Mean Absolute Deviation) of each data point from the mean of numbers. - It is the standard deviation without squaring it. - Basically it tells you how spread out from the mean your group of numbers is. - Variance- the average squared deviation of each data point from the mean - Measure of how far a set of numbers is spread out Correlation Studies - Quite often naturalistic studies lead to correlation studies … that is, often through observation one thinks they see links … relationships … between different variables. - Eye gaze and social rank in chimpanzees - Perceived attractiveness related to height? Third variable - The fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable - Two variables are correlated only bec
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.