Textbook Notes (369,205)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (9,699)
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Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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Steve Joordens

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2 The Ways and Means of Psychology Scientific method: A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments. Naturalistic observation: The observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments (with as little involvement as possible). Most scientific questions begin by someone observing something in its natural habitat Example: Jane Goodales work with chimpanzees. For chimpanzees eye contact was a struggle for hierarchy. The first one to back down will be the weaker one. Problem: Almost impossible for a human being to be invisible, so it is not exactly natural. Clinical observation: The observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment. Correlational study: The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals. Correlational studies are used to study variables that cannot be manipulated by the experimenter. For example, a persons sex, genetic history, income, social class, family environment, and personality are obviously not under the researchers control. Experiment:A study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables. Hypothesis: A statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relation between two or more events. Theory: A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis. Case study: A detailed description of an individuals behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis. As with naturalistic observations, these could form the basis of hypotheses about the causes of behaviour. Unlike a naturalist, however, a clinical psychologist most likely does not remain in the background, because the object of therapy is to change the patients behaviour and to solve problems. Indeed, the psychologist is ethically constrained to engage in activities designed to benefit the patient; he or she cannot arbitrarily withhold some treatment or apply another just for the sake of new observations. So, like the naturalist, a clinician is bound by certain rules that limit the kinds of www.notesolution.com
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