Textbook Notes (368,799)
Canada (162,168)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Steve Joordens

3 Evolution, Heredity, and Behaviour Biological evolution: Changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over timestands as the primary explanation of the origin of life. Adaptive significance: The effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Ultimate causes: Evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over successive generations. Proximate causes: Immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour. Culture: The sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people. Artificial selection: A procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics. Natural selection: The consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, some animalsthe survivorswill produce more offspring than will other animals. Reproductive success: The number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species. Variation: The differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of their genetic, biological (size, strength, physiology), and psychological (intelligence, sociability, behaviour) characteristics. Genotype: An organisms genetic makeup, which differs from that of all other individuals (except in the case of identical twins). The genotype determines how much the environment can influence an organisms development and behaviour. Phenotype: The outward expression of an organisms genotype; an organisms physical characteristics and behaviour. Ever individuals phenotype is produced by the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Competition: A striving and vying with others who share the same ecological niche for food, mates, and territory. www.notesolution.com
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