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Study Guide of chapter 5 for PSYA01

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 5- LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR CHAPTER OUTLINE: Habituation: the simplest form of learning-involves learning not to respond to insignificant events that occur repeatedly. Habituation helps an organisms behaviour become sensitive to more important stimuli, such as those involving survival and procreation. Classical Conditioning: organisms behaviour is elicited by one stimulus-the conditional stimulus-predicts the occurrence of another stimulus-the unconditional stimulus. Different relations between the conditional and unconditional stimuli may lead to extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination of conditional response. Plays important role in emotion. Operant Conditioning: enables an organisms behaviour to be modified by its consequences. Positive and negative reinforcement increase the frequency of a behaviour and punishment and extinction decrease it. New, complex behaviours can be acquired through process of shaping. Superstition and ritualistic behaviour occur in many species when such behaviours are accidentally reinforced. Conditioning of Complex Behaviours: Insight seems to require previous experience with the elements of the problem. OPENING CASE STUDY: Individual had a bad habit of always correcting other peoples grammatical error. Consulted a behaviour analyst who said that everytime he corrected someone he had to burn $10 of his money Within a week he had stopped his bad habit because: You have to arrange the contingencies in your environment so that they reinforce desirable behaviours punish undesirable ones; in this case burning $10 everytime he corrected someone. -Behaviours that produce favourable consequences are repeated, but those that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to recur. we learn from experience Learning : An adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience. -cannot be observed directly; can only be inferred from changes in behaviour. -learning may occur without noticeable changes in observable behaviour taking place. -some cases learning is not apparent Performance: behavioural change (or new behaviour) produced by the internal change (nervous system) HABITUATION: Learning not to respond to unimportant events that occur repeatedly; one of simplest forms of learning Orientating response:becoming alert and turn heads toward source of sound -Humphrey snail experiment: snails adapting to tapping noise created by Humphrey so not running back into shells after hearing the sound -Wicks and Rankin worm experiment: similar to that of snails, except also susceptive to heat, but were able to distinguish between heat tapping and normal stimulus tapping 1 www.notesolution.com
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