Chapter 2 PSYA01
Empiricism 實證論: the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired
Scientific method: a set of principles about the appropriate relationship
between ideas and evidence.
Theory: a hypothetical explanation of natural phenomenon.
Hypothesis: a falsifiable(可被檢驗的)e prediction made by a theory.
What three things make people difficult to study?
1, complexity, 2, variability, 3, reactivity (when ppl know they are being
studied, they don’t always behave as they otherwise would do.)
two ways to meet these challenges: methods of observation, methods of
Operational definition: a description of a property in concrete, measurable
Electromyography (EMG): a device that measures muscles contractions
under the surface of a person’s skin.
Good measures have three properties: validity, reliability, and power.
Validity: extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually
Reliability: the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement
whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
Power: the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in
the operational definition.
Demand characteristics: those aspects of an observational setting that cause
people to behave as th