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Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA01H3 (1,192)
Steve Joordens (1,048)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Mtuners Marking tests, 60% is the most common mark, what central tendency is it? (pg.49) - Mode - Mean - Median The sleep disorder when people stop breathing for brief periods of time is called: (pg.159) - Insomnia - Narcolepsy - Sleep apnea - Somnambulism According to a group of German Psychologists called Gestalt Psychologists, the primary purpose of the visual system is: (lecture 13 – visual perception) - The recognition of objects from basic visual elements. - To see things as individual parts - Send information to the brain - Determine the sharpness of the object You and your friend are trying on clothes and she tries on a shirt that you think looks horrible. When she asks you if you like the shirt you happily tell her that you love it. This is an example of which display rule? (pg.321) - Deintensification - Intensification - Neutralizing - Masking Insincere expressions tend to appear and disappear abruptly. What concept explains this? (pg.322) - Symmetry - Duration - Morphology - Temporal patterning Which part of the brain is ONLY associated with Trace Conditioning? (pg.273) - Hippocampus - Pituitary gland - Cerebellum - Amygdala The hippocampus is critical for: (pg.99) - A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements - A subcortial structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex - A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes, particularly the formation of emotional memories - Creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex Regardless of how many times Lucy, the rat pulls on the lever, the reinforcement of getting a pellet averages out to once an hour of the whole day but the presentation of the reinforcement is variable. She may receive a pellet at 6:00 o'clock hour, later in the 7:00 o'clock hour, instantly into the 8:00 o'clock hour, and so on. What kind of schedule of reinforcement is this known as? (pg.282) - Variable ratio schedule (VR) - Variable interval schedule (VI) - Fixed interval schedule (FI) - Fixed ratio schedule (FR) Certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control, and only genuine emotions can produce certain details in expressions. Which concept explains this? (pg.322) - Symmetry - Duration - Temporal patterning - Morphology From which senses does the thalamus receive input from? (pg.141) - All senses except smell - Only touch - All senses except taste - Only sight In Classical Conditioning, which of the following is false? (pg.277) - The amygdala, is a part of the brain involved in classical conditioning of fear. - The consequences of an organism's behaviour determine whether it will be repeated in the future. - A neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response - Pavlov used dogs in his experiment to show that they salivate to neutral stimuli when associated with another stimulus that naturally evokes salivation. A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence is referred to as: (pg.40) - Scientific method - Hypothesis - Theory - Empiricism Freud's therapy of psychoanalysis consisted of: (pg.14) - Bringing conscious material into unconscious awareness - Bringing the unconscious material into conscious awareness - Bringing cognitive material to unconscious mind - Bringing cognitive material to conscious mind When does a refractory period take place in the axon? (pg.85) - After an action potential has been initiated - When the Na+ channels are open and K+ channels are shut down - When the K+ channels are open and Na+ channels are shut down - After an action potential has been completed The Gestalt law which suggests objects that move together are seen as one single object is known as: (lecture 13 – visual perception) - Similarity - Common fate - Grouping - Closure The belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation is (pg.40) - Parsimony - Scientific research - Empiricism - Dogmatism Suppose you have a dream about a tree burning down across the street from where your friend used to live. The dream's underlying message is that you wish for the death of your friend. According to Freud, which term would best describe this underlying message? (pg.197) - Latent content - Subliminal perception - Manifest content - Cognitive perception What are the properties of a good measure? (pg.44) - Measure, demand characteristic, power - Validity, reliability, and power - Mode, mean, and median - Normal distribution, frequency distribution, demand characteristics Why is habituation considered a form of implicit learning? (pg.299) - It occurs even in organisms without complex brain structures necessary for explicit learning - It is not considered a form of implicit learning - It involves the hippocampus, and can be affected by lesions in the hippocampus - Involves being aware of both the process and the products of information acquisition Which of the following is a structure that is critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex? (pg.99) - Hippocampus - Hypothalamus - Basal Ganglia - Amygdala There is a black glove on the table. When you ask your friend Sophia to tell you what is on the table, she said that she doesn't know what it is. Sophia's inability to recognize objects by sight is called _________ : (pg.143) - Facial indetection - Incomplete memory - Visual-form agnosia - Amnesia What kind of motivation is suitable for this case? Jimmy is a very lazy boy, playing computer games every day. Also, he did his homework in last minute, so he got low marks of his assignment. A month before the final exam, he changed. He woke up early in the morning to study for his exams, because he wanted to get higher marks for his final exams. (pg.338) - Conscious - Extrinsic - Intrinsic - Approach The frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex is devoted to: (pg.102) - Processing information about touch, perception of the body and spatial matters - Responsibility for audition and understanding of speech and language Processing visual information - Specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning and memory Waitresses who use organizational encoding to organize customer orders into groups are essentially ______________ the information, giving themselves less to remember. (pg.226) - Storing - Chunking - Encoding - Rehearsing An important part of the auditory pathway is the _______in the ________. (pg.96) - Thalamus, forebrain - Tectum, midbrain - Cerebellum, hindbrain - Tegmentum, midbrain Which part of the brain is involved in movement and arousal? (pg.97) - Forebrain - Midbrain - Hindbrain - Reticular formation A person is about to go on stage and perform in front of hundreds of people. Which nervous system would best explain what is happening to the person's body? (pg.92) - Parasympathetic nervous system - Autonomic nervous system - Sympathetic nervous system - Somatic nervous system When a dog see's itself in the mirror for the first time, it is initially startled; however after a while, the dog seems to ignore the reflection. Which specific process is the cause of this? (lecture 20 – classical conditioning) - Unconditioned response - Habituation - Classical Conditioning - Positive reinforcement Remembering specific Christmas decorations of a house you just passed is an example of: (pg.226) - Echoic memory - None of them - Sensory memory - Iconic memory A person with amnesia will lose ________ but be able to retain all the other types of memory. (pg.238) - Implicit memory - Explicit memory - Priming - Procedural memory When many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system. (pg.127) - Transduction - Reception - Perception - Sensation What was Watson's goal in the Little Albert experiment? (pg.270) - He wanted to show that emotional responses could be produced by classical conditioning - He wanted to show that only simple reactions can be conditioned using Pavlovian techniques - He wanted to support Freud's theory that fear and anxiety are a product of the deeper unconscious - He wanted to show that emotional responses could be produced by operant conditioning What is the function of the retinal ganglion cells? (pg.137) - Control size of pupil and amount of light entering it - Organizing signals and sends them to the brain - Detects colour and allows us to focus on fine detail - Collects neural signals from the rods and cones and transmits them to the outermost layer of the retina Which type of judgments result in a better memory for words? (pg.221) - Auditory judgments - Visual judgments - Rhyme judgments - Semantic judgments The defense mechanism which is described as __________, is when one's person's own threats, feelings, motives, or impulses are envisaged onto another person or group (pg.482) - Sublimination - Identification - Projection - Displacement John, a veteran who always exaggerates his past war experiences in Vietnam to his friends, is experiencing a ______ memory bias (pg.254) - Confirmation bias - Change bias - Egocentric bias - Consistency bias What is a relatively permanent change of behaviour altered by experience? (pg.264) - Learning - Habituation - Reinforcement - Heritability External rewards undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a certain behaviour. This is known as____ and an example would be____ (pg.280) - Unconditional stimulus, kids colouring in preschool - Overjustification effect, kids colouring in preschool - Unconditional stimulus, dog salivating - Extinction, dog salivating During conditioning, when a guitar string is plucked, followed by a plate of food that makes the dog salivate, state the UR,US,CR,CS. What type of learning is it? (pg.266) - CS: salivation, US: food, UR: none, CR: guitar; operant conditioning - CS: food, US: none, UR: food, CR: salivation; classical conditioning - CS: guitar, US: food, UR: salivation CR: none; operant conditioning - CS: guitar, US: food, UR: salivation, CR: none; classical conditioning Superstitious behavior was explained by behaviorists as: (pg.286) - When a cognitive map was created by a certain action. - When an observational learning was presented which had no relationship to the action. - When a random action was reinforced by a certain action - When stimulus was presented which had no relationship to the action. Which of these is the correct definition of 'Hypothalamus'? (pg.98) - Regulates body temperature, relays information to the cerebral cortex" - Mastergland" of the body's hormone producing system - Relays and filters information from the senses and transmits information to the cerebral cortex - Regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behaviour What is involved in the storage of memories associated with emotions such as fear? Abnormal firing of this causes panic attacks for the person. (pg.99) - Basal ganglia - Synapse - Hippocampus - Amygdal If someone asks you to not think about polar bears and you end up thinking about them, what is this phenomenon called? (pg.186) - Dynamic unconscious - Rebound effect of thought suppression - Cocktail party phenemon - Mental control The James-Lange theory of emotion states that: (pg.311) - Stimuli trigger emotional experience in the brain, which in turn produces activity in the autonomic nervous system - A stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain - Stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain - Emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal Slot machines in a modern casino are an example of: (pg.283) - Fixed Interval Schedule - Variable Interval Schedule - Fixed Ratio Schedule - Variable Ratio Schedule The fact that people with amnesia can create new Procedural memories, but cannot remember creating these memories show that: (pg.238-239) - Psychologists have found that patients with amnesia fake their loss of memory - The hippocampus is not used in the creation of implicit memories - Patients with amnesia do not properly create retrieval cues - They have suffered lesions to the Cerebellum Our ability to visually combine details so that we perceive unified objects is explained by (pg.145) - Visual streaming - Receptive field - Feature integ
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