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Chapter 8

PSYA01 Chapter 8 Notes.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 8- EMOTION AND MOTIVATION  emotions are essential elements for our humanity  EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE:  WHAT IS EMOTION?  multidimensional scaling is a technique used to generate a map of emotional landscape  valence is how positive or negative the experience is  arousal is how active or passive the experience is  emotion is a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of psychological activity  EMOTIONAL BODY  James-Lange theory of emotion states that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain  this theory thus states that emotional experience is the consequence and not the cause of our psychological reactions to objects ad events in the world  Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain  undifferentiated physical arousal is the claim by Schachter and Singer that different emotions are different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity  two-factor theory states that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal  Schachter and Singer believed that people have the same physiological reaction to all emotional stimuli but they interpret that reaction differently on different occasions  EMOTIONAL BRAIN  appraisal is an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus  amygdala is critical to making those appraisals  if visual information does not reach the amygdala, then its emotional significance cannot be assessed  information about a stimulus takes either of the two routes in the brain: 1) "fast pathway"- the information goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala or 2) "slow pathway"- the information goes from the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala  studies have confirmed that emotion is a primitive system that prepares us to react rapidly and on the basis of little information to things that are relevant to our survival and well- being  REGULATION OF EMOTION:  emotional regulation is the cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience  reappraisal is changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus  EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION:  emotional expression is an observable sign of an emotional state  emotional state influences everything we do  action units are the unique movements that the human face is capable of  zygomatic major is the muscle that pulls our lip corners up  obicularis oculi is the muscle that crinkles the outside edges of our eyes  COMMUNICATIVE EXPRESSION:  Darwin suggested that emotional expressions are a convenient way for one animal to let another animal know how it is feeling and hence how it is prepared to act  UNIVERSALITY OF EXPRESSION:  universality hypothesis suggest that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone  this hypothesis is accurate according to two evidences: 1) people are quite accurate at judging the emotional expressions of members of other cultures and 2) people who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions as those who have  anger, disgust, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise are the six universal emotions  CAUSE AND EFFECT OF EXPRESSION:  members of different cultures express many emotions in the same way because facial expressions are signs, whereas words are symbols  facial expressions are signs of emotion because signs are caused by the things they signify  the context in which the facial expression occurs tells us what that expression means  facial feedback hypothesis states that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify  mimicry of emotions helps us figure out what others are feeling and also feel the same emotion at the same time  DECEPTIVE EXPRESSION:  display rules are the norms for the control of emotional expression  several techniques need to be used in order to follow display rules:  intensification- exaggerating the expression of one's emotion  deintensification-muting the expression of one's emotion  masking- expressing one emotion while feeling another  neutralizing- feeling an emotion but displaying no expression  different cultures have different display rules  features that distinguish sincere and insincere facial expression:  morphology-some facial muscles resist conscious control and thus these "reliable muscles" are revealing  symmetry- sincere expressions are symmetrical as compared to insincere ones  duration- sincere expressions only tend to last between 1/2 to 5 seconds and expression that last shorter or longer than this time are insincere ones  temporal patterning- sincere expressions appear and disappear smoothly over a few seconds whereas insincere expressions have more abrupt appearance and disappearance  polygraph is a lie detecting machine which measures a variety of physiological responses that are associated with stress, which people often feel when they are afraid of being caught in a lie  MOTIVATION  motivation is the purpose for or psychological cause of a action  emotions move people in two different ways: 1) they provide people with informatio
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