Textbook Notes (367,752)
Canada (161,368)
Psychology (9,685)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 8

PSYA01 Chapter 8 Notes.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 8- EMOTION AND MOTIVATION  emotions are essential elements for our humanity  EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE:  WHAT IS EMOTION?  multidimensional scaling is a technique used to generate a map of emotional landscape  valence is how positive or negative the experience is  arousal is how active or passive the experience is  emotion is a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of psychological activity  EMOTIONAL BODY  James-Lange theory of emotion states that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain  this theory thus states that emotional experience is the consequence and not the cause of our psychological reactions to objects ad events in the world  Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain  undifferentiated physical arousal is the claim by Schachter and Singer that different emotions are different interpretations of a single pattern of bodily activity  two-factor theory states that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal  Schachter and Singer believed that people have the same physiological reaction to all emotional stimuli but they interpret that reaction differently on different occasions  EMOTIONAL BRAIN  appraisal is an evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus  amygdala is critical to making those appraisals  if visual information does not reach the amygdala, then its emotional significance cannot be assessed  information about a stimulus takes either of the two routes in the brain: 1) "fast pathway"- the information goes from the thalamus directly to the amygdala or 2) "slow pathway"- the information goes from the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala  studies have confirmed that emotion is a primitive system that prepares us to react rapidly and on the basis of little information to things that are relevant to our survival and well- being  REGULATION OF EMOTION:  emotional regulation is the cognitive and behavioral strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience  reappraisal is changing one's emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotion-eliciting stimulus  EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION:  emotional expression is an observable sign of an emotional state  emotional state influences everything we do  action units are the unique movements that the human face is capable of  zygomatic major is the muscle that pulls our lip corners up  obicularis oculi is the muscle that crinkles the outside edges of our eyes  COMMUNICATIVE EXPRESSION:  Darwin suggested that emotional expressions are a convenient way for one animal to let another animal know how it is feeling and hence how it is prepared to act  UNIVERSALITY OF EXPRESSION:  universality hypothesis suggest that emotional expressions have the same meaning for everyone  this hypothesis is accurate according to two evidences: 1) people are quite accurate at judging the emotional expressions of members of other cultures and 2) people who have never seen a human face make the same facial expressions as those who have  anger, disgust, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise are the six universal emotions  CAUSE AND EFFECT OF EXPRESSION:  members of different cultures express many emotions in the same way because facial expressions are signs, whereas words are symbols  facial expressions are signs of emotion because signs are caused by the things they signify  the context in which the facial expression occurs tells us what that expression means  facial feedback hypothesis states that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify  mimicry of emotions helps us figure out what others are feeling and also feel the same emotion at the same time  DECEPTIVE EXPRESSION:  display rules are the norms for the control of emotional expression  several techniques need to be used in order to follow display rules:  intensification- exaggerating the expression of one's emotion  deintensification-muting the expression of one's emotion  masking- expressing one emotion while feeling another  neutralizing- feeling an emotion but displaying no expression  different cultures have different display rules  features that distinguish sincere and insincere facial expression:  morphology-some facial muscles resist conscious control and thus these "reliable muscles" are revealing  symmetry- sincere expressions are symmetrical as compared to insincere ones  duration- sincere expressions only tend to last between 1/2 to 5 seconds and expression that last shorter or longer than this time are insincere ones  temporal patterning- sincere expressions appear and disappear smoothly over a few seconds whereas insincere expressions have more abrupt appearance and disappearance  polygraph is a lie detecting machine which measures a variety of physiological responses that are associated with stress, which people often feel when they are afraid of being caught in a lie  MOTIVATION  motivation is the purpose for or psychological cause of a action  emotions move people in two different ways: 1) they provide people with informatio
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.