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The Brain and Its Structures.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

The Brain and Its Structures Regions and Structure Functions HINDBRAIN -consists of structures critical to basic, life-sustaining processes -Includes the; 1)brain stem (medulla and pons) 2)Cerebellum 1)Brain Stem Medulla -consists of medulla and pons =basic functions like breathing, heart rate, sneezing, salivating, vomiting Pons =general levels of wakefulness, also appears to have role in dreaming (reticular formation sends signals up the cortex to influence attention and alertfulness) 2)Cerebellum = involved in the details of movement, maintaining -(little brain) – lobe-like structure at the base of the balance, and learning new motor skills brain -(specialized in coordination and timing of movements) MIDBRAIN =relay station between sensory and motor areas , -resides just above the hindbrain voluntary movement - Includes neurons that contain very dense (ex. tectum coordinates sensation of motion with action concentrations of dopamine receptors and activity – pigeon ex) FOREBRAIN -most visibly obvious region of the brain, consists of multiple interconnected structures that are critical to such complex -includes the following: Basal ganglia -involved in facilitating planned movements, skill learning, and are also integrated with the brain’s reward system (pleasure) (people v. practiced at given motor skill have actually modified it) (nucleus accumbens- reward area) Limbic system Amygdala -integrated network involved in emotion and memory -facilitates memory formation for emotional events, -key structure = amygdala (almond shaped) mediates fear responses, and appears to play a role in -Hippocampus – (seahorse) – just below the
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