Textbook Notes (368,826)
Canada (162,194)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter

Psychology: PSYA01 Chapter Three Textbook Notes

6 Pages
106 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 6,7,8 Week 4-5 Psychology Chapter 3 Module 3.1 - Are we products of our genes (nature) or environment (nature) in which we are raised - Nature and nurture lie along a continuum, with some traits subject to greater influence from genes Heredity and Behavior - Genes: basic unit of heredity; they are responsible for guiding the process of creating proteins that make up our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life span - Chromosomes: structures in the nucleus that are lined with all the genes an individual inherits - DNA: a molecule formed in a double-helix shape that contains four nucleotides: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, - Genes instruct cells how to behave, which type of molecule to produce, and when to produce them - Genotype: refers to the genetic makeup of an organism - Phenotype: consists of the observable characteristics, including physical structures and behaviors - Homozygous: two corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes - Heterozygous: two genes that differ - DD= dominant homozygous Dd= dominant heterozygous dd= homozygous recessive Behavioral Genetics: twins and adoption - Behavioral Genetics: the study of how genes and environment influence behavior - Comparing peoples relativeness, parents-offspring, siblings, unrelated individuals and measuring resemblance for a specific trait - Monozygotic twins: come from a single ovum, which makes them genetically identical - Dizygotic twins: comes from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells that share the same womb - Heritability: a statistic, expressed as number between zero and one, that represents the degree to which genetic difference between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in a population 1.0 indicates that the gene accounts for the individual differences - Environment never stops interacting with genes Behavioral Genomics: the molecular approach - Behavioral Genomics: is the study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behavior - A single gene can affect more than one trait, this is called shared genetic liability Evolutionary Psychology - Heritable traits are passed on through sexual reproduction, some of these traits called adaptations contribute to survival, health and sexual behavior - Evolution: the change in the frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generations - Natural selection: is the process by which favorable traits become increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals, while the unfavorable traits become less common Lecture 6,7,8 Week 4-5 Cultural and Environmental Contribution to Behavior - Gender difference may occur because of cultural and environmental factors because they choose to believe in gender roles Module 3.2 - Neurotoxic attack the nervous system disabling the nerves so the body can’t regulate the systems that the body needs to survive Neural Communication - Neurons: one of the major types of cells found in the nervous system, responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body - Some extend from the spinal cord to extremities, others start as soon as they end - Cell body: contains genetic material and nucleus, materials needed by neuron made here - Dendrites: projections from the cell body that pick up impulses from other neurons - Axon: the structure that carries nerve action potential, projection of the cell body - Neurotransmitter: the chemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communicate with each other - Synapse: where neurotransmitters are released, small spaces that separate nerve cells - Sensory Neuron: fetch information from the bodily sense and brings it towards the brain - Motor Neurons: carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord and towards muscles to control their flexion Glial Cells - Myelin: fatty sheath that insulates axons from one another, resulting in increased speed and efficiency of neural communication - Multiple Sclerosis: disease where the immune system doesn’t recognize the myelin and attacks it, affecting the structural and functional integrity of the nerve cells - Glial Cells: specialized cells that are involved in mounting immune responses in the brain, removing the wastes and synchronizing activity of the billions of neurons - Interaction of neurons is dependent on glial cells Resting and Action Potential - Neurons differ in their ion charges - Resting Potential: refers to its relatively stable state during which an action potential isn’t sent - The difference in charge is -70mV to +40mV, the threshold is -55mV - When action potential occurs this is called neural firing - Action Potential: a wave of electrical activity that originates at the base of the axon and rapidly travels down in length - Synaptic cleft: a minute space between the terminal button and dendrite - Refractory period: brief moment when the neuron cannot fire - All-or-none principal: individual nerve cell fires at the same strength every time an action potential occurs o Neurons cannot overfire or underfire , speed of signal cannot be faster or slower o A stimulus is experienced with greater intensity because its stimulating more nerve cells - Neurogenesis: the formation of new neurons from a limited number of brain regions specifically learning and memory regions - Lecture 6,7,8 Week 4-5 Neurotransmitters and Hormones - Many different types of NT, each have their own unique molecular shape - Send and receive certain number of neurotransmitter, key and lock specificity - When neurotransmitters are released at the axon terminal, they cross the synapse and fit in a particular receptor of the dendrite - Excitatory: increase action potential, inhibitory: decreasing action potential - NT left in the synapse can be broken down by enzymes or reuptake - Reuptake: NT are absorbed into the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron o Natural recycling of NT Types of NT - Molecular difference causes each NT to have a different effect on the nerve behavior - Monoamines: NT with unique functions - Snake venom blocks acetylcholine preventing release into synapse thus affect muscle movement - Acetylcholine: movement and attention, junction of nerve and skeletal muscle cells, important for voluntary movement - Dopamine: control of movement, reward-seeking behavior, cognition and behavior, mood control - Norepinephrine: memory, attention to new or important stimuli, regulation of appetite and mood o Synthesized from dopamine, regulate stress - Serotonin: regulation of mood, sleep and appetite - Glutamate: excites nervous system, memory and autonomic nervous system reaction - GABA: inhibits brain activity, lowers arousals, anxiety and excitation, facilitation of sleep o Reducing the resting potential so that threshold isn’t reached Drugs Effect on NT - Agonist: drugs that enhance or mimic the effect of a NT’s action - Drugs can behave as agonist either directly or indirectly o Direct: physically binds to the receptor o Indirect: increases the release and availability of that NT
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit