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Chapter 2

Psychology: PSYA01 Chapter Two Textbook Notes

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Steve Joordens

Lecture 4,5,6 CHAPTER 2 Week 2-3 Psychology Chapter 2 Module 2.1 - Important aspect of research is gaining objectivity, instead of subjectivity - Objectivity assumes that certain facts about the world can be observed and tested independently from the person - Subjectivity implies that knowledge of the knowledge of the event is shaped by the person’s pervious knowledge expectations beliefs and mood Five characteristics of Quality Scientific Research 1. Based on measurement that are objective valid and reliable 2. Can be generalized 3. Uses techniques that reduce bias 4. Made public 5. Can be replicated Objectivity - Objectivity Measurements: the measurement of an entity or behavior that within an allowed margin of error is consistent across instruments and observers - Variable: refers to the object, concept or event being measured - Psychological experiments used to be difficult but now with MRI technology, and understanding of hormones and other biological variables tests can indicate behavior and mental functioning - Self-reporting: a method in which responses are provided by the people who are being studied, typically though face to face interviews phone surveys paper and pencil tests and web-based questionnaires - Operant Definition: statements that describe the procedures and specific measures that are used to record observations - i.e. variable: intoxication, operational definition: physiological blood alcohol level, behavioral straight line test Reliability - Reliability: provides consistent and stable answers across multiple observations and points in time Validity - Validity: the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims to measure Generalizability of Results - When we apply information and findings from one person to another we are generalizing - Generalizability: refers to the degree to which one set of results can be applied to other situation, individuals or events - In order to generalization it is effective to use an entire population - Population: the group that researchers want to generalize - If the population is too large psychologist use random sampling - Random Sample: every individual of a population has an equal chance of being included - Although it is difficult to pick a random sample, computers now generate them or scientists look at convenience samples - Convenience Sample: samples of people who are most readily available - Two situations in which research occurs: laboratory research and naturalistic research - Laboratory research: studies conducting in an environment controlled by the scientist - Naturalistic research: studies that occur in subjects natural habitat Lecture 4,5,6 CHAPTER 2 Week 2-3 - Ecological Validity: the degree to which the results of a laboratory study can be applied to or repeated in the natural environment Sources of Bias In Psychological Research - Hawthrone effect: used to describe situation in which behavior changes as a result of being observed - Two sources of bias: researcher bias and subject bias How does bias affect research participants - Demand Characteristics: inadvertent cues given by the experimenter or the experimental context that provide information about how the subject should behave - Social desirability: participants respond in ways that increase the chances that they will be viewed favorably - Placebo effect: a measurable and experienced improvement in health or behavior that cannot be attributable to a medication or treatment Techniques to Reduce Bias - Anonymity: personal information is not recorded, only response - Confidentiality: results only seen by researcher - These techniques are effective in providing honest response from research participants - Single-Blind Study: participant doesn’t know the true purpose of the study - Double-Blind Study: neither the participant or experimenter know the exact treatment for any individual (assistant conducts the observation) Sharing Results - Peer Review: a process in which a paper is submitted for editing my experts in the field of study - Replication: the process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time Anecdotes Authority and Common Sense - Poor evidence comes from anecdotes authority and common sense - Anecdotal evidence: individuals testimony about an observation or even that is used to make a claim as evidence - Appeal to Authority: the belief in an experts claim even though there is no supporting data - An expert describes the person no the claim itself - It’s not unusual for people to find that the experts claim actually has no evidence backing it, but rather an opinion - Appeal to Common Sense: a claim that appears to be sound, but lacks supporting scientific evidence - Appeal to tradition (Its always been done this way), Appeals to novelty (it’s the latest thing) Module 2.2 - Test hypothesis through research designs, these inc
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