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Module 1.docx

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Steve Joordens

Module 1.1 The Science of Psychology - Anthropomorphism is treating objects or animal as people - First, psyc involves the study of behabiour that broadly defined can incude perceptions thoughts and emotions. - Second, psycologists employ the scientific method in their work. - We can define psychology as the scientific study of behaviour, thought, and experience. - Psycologists share with other sciences and ascientists a common set of methods and perspepctives for understanding the world. The Scientific Method A person who conducts a system of observing, predicting and testing is conducting science. The scientific method is a way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predictions. The scientific Method- scienists use theories to generate hypotheses. Once tested, hypotheses are either confirmed orrejected. Confirmed hypotheses lead to new ones and strengthen theories. Rejected hypotheses are revised and tested again, and can potentially alter an existing theory. Hypothesis and theories are both crucial frameworks for scientists. Both guide the process and progress of the sciences. A hypothesis is a testable prediction nabout processes that can be observed and measured. (testable hypothesis must be confirmed or rejected, scientific hypothesis must be testable.) Hypotheses are a major component of scientific theories. A theory is an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole. Theories are built on hypotheses that are constantly tested and confirmed. Pseudoscience ideas that are presented as science but do not actually utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure  Theories are not the same thing as opinions or beliefs  All theories are not equally plausible  A measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe ti to be true THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL Why do we behave the way that we do? The biopsychosocial model is a means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Building Scientific Literacy Scientific literacy , theability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. Critical thinking involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others, and with our own assuptions and beliefs. Module 1.2 How Psychology Became a Science Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins Science stemps from two fundamental beliefs; empiricsm and determinism Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience. Determinism is the belief that all events are goverened by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships. [free will versus determinism] Psycologists do recognize that behaviour is determined by both internal and external influences. Zeitgeist “spirit of the times” refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history Materialism the belief that humans, and other living beings, are composed exclusively of physical matter Dualism is the opposing belief, that there are properties of humans that are not material (a mind or soul separate from the body) Early influences on psychology came from the natural and physical sciences INFLUENCES FROM PHYSICS: EXPERIMENTING WITH THE MIND Fechner was a physicist who coined the term psychophysics which is the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world INFLUENCES FROM EVOLUTIONARY THEORY: THE ADAPTIVE FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOUR Behaviour is shaped by natural selection just as physical traits are INFLUENCES FROM MEDICINE: DIAGNOSES AND TREATMENTS Clinical psychology the field of psychology that concentreates on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Brain localization the ideda that certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics Mid 1800s two competiting views of localization - Phrenology by Gall and Spurzheim, believed that the brain consisted of 27 “organs” could be detected by examining the surface of the skull - Later this was abandonded by the study of brain injuries such as physical Paul Broca who studied a patient named Tan, left side of the brain and claimed to have found where speech production was localized now named BROCAS AREA - Likewise, Wericke area in 1874., patienets with damange in wericke area oculd speak in sentences that sounded normal but with unusual or made up words Mesmer created hyponosis by being exposed to magnets too much Sigmund freud developed the concept of an uncious mind and its underlying processes in his theory of psychoanylsis. Psychoanalysis is a psychological approach that attempts to explain how behaviour and personality are influenced by unconscious processes. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES: MEASURING AND COMPARING HUMANS Galton-> nature and nurture relationships the inquiry into how heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) influence behavior and mental processes. …. Nature>nurture Eugenics, “good genes” caused a lot of discrimination among non whites STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM: THE BEGININGS OF PSYCHOLOGY Most contemporary psychologists agree that Wilhelm wundt established the first laboratory dedicated to studying human behaviour abd was responsible for establishing psychology as an independeyt scientific field. Introspection “to look within” Structuralism was an attempt to analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic, and to understand how these elements work together. William James, first textbook in psychology, The Principles of Psychology 1890 In contrast to structuralism, which looks for permanent, unchanging elemetns of thought, james was influenced by darwins evolutionary principles, so he preferred to examine behaviour in context, and explain how our thoughts and actions help us adapt to our environment. Functionalism is the study of the purpose and function of behaviour and conscious experience. Evolutionary psychology is based on darwins ideas, an approach that interprets and explains modern human behaviour in terms of forces acting upon our distant ancestors. Ac
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