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Psychology (9,698)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Psych notes.docx

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 1 Key terms Scientific Method: A way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predications Psychology: as the scientific study of behavior, thought and experience Hypothesis: a testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured Pseudoscience: refers to ideas that are presented as science but do not actually utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure Theory: an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole Bio-psychosocial model: a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors Scientific literacy: the ability to understand, analyze and apply scientific information Critical thinking: involves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others, and with our own assumptions and beliefs Empiricism: a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience Determinism: belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause and effect relationships Zeitgeist: refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history Materialism: the belief that humans, and other living being are composed exclusively of physical matter Psychophysics: the study of the relationship between the physical world and the mental representation of that world Clinical psychology: the field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Psychoanalysis: a psychological approach that attempts to explain how behavior and personality are influenced by unconscious processes Nature and nurture relationships: the inquiry into how heredity (nature) and the environment (nurture) influence behavior and mental processes Structuralism: an attempt to analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements, and to understand how these elements work together Functionalism: the study of the purpose and function of behavior and conscious experience th Behaviorism: an approach that dominated the first half of the 20 century of American psychology and had a singular focus on studying only observable behavior, with little to no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influences on behavior Humanistic psychology: focuses on the unique aspects of each individual human, each persons freedom to act, his or her rational though, and the belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals Gestalt psychology: an approach emphasizing that psychologists need to focus on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its parts Applied Psychology: uses psychological knowledge to address problems and issues across various settings and professions, including law, education, clinical psychology and business organization and management Psychiatry: a branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of mental and behavioral disorders Forensic psychology: encompasses work in the criminal justice system, including interactions with the legal system and its professionals School psychology: involves working with students who have special needs, such as those with emotional, social and academic problems Health psychology: the study of how individual, biological and environmental factors affects physical health Industrial and organizational psychology: a branch of applied psychology in which psychologists work for businesses and other organizations to improve employee productivity and the organizational structure of the company or business The Science Of Psychology: Psychology involves the study of behavior that, broadly defined, can include perceptions, thoughts and emotions Psychologists employ the scientific method in work The Scientific Method Whether a field of study is a science, or a specific type of research is scientific, is based not on the subject but on the use of the scientific method It involves a dynamic interaction between hypothesis testing and the construction of theories Hypothesis: Making Predictions  A testable hypothesis is one that can confirmed or rejected, and a scientific hypothesis must be testable Scientists are eager to test hypotheses whereas astrologists would rather you just take their word for it Theories: Explaining Phenomena - Theories are built from hypotheses that are repeatedly tested and confirmed; in turn, good theories eventually become accepted explanations of behavior or other natural phenomena - Any scientific theory must be falsifiable: just as researches can discover strong evidence in support of a theory, they can also discover strong evidence in support of a theory, they can always discover evidence that’s falsifies a theory  Theories are not the same things as opinions or beliefs  All theories are not equally plausible  A measure of a good theory is not the number of people who believe it to be true As the study of human behavior and experience, psychology examines the individual as a product of multiple influences, including biological, psychological, and social factors The Bio Psychosocial Model Biological influences on our behavior involve brain structures, chemicals, hormones and drug effects Your family, peers, and immediate social situation also determine how you think, feel and behave Building Scientific Literacy Ability to learn new information Steps: 1.) Knowledge Gathering- what we know about this? 2.) Scientific explanation- how can science explain it? 3.) Critical thinking- Can we critically evaluate the evidence? 4.) Application- Why is this relevant? How Psychology Became a Science Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins Science is actually a philosophy of knowledge that stems from two fundamental beliefs: Empiricism:  Empiricism means that knowledge about the world is based on careful observation, not common sense or speculation  Whatever we see or measure should be observable by anyone else who follows the same methods  Scientific theories must be rational explanations of how the observations fit together Determinism  There are compelling reasons believe that our behaviours are determined  Psychologists certainly do recognize that behavior is determined by both internal and external influences  Psychological science is both empirical and deterministic  To the average person of the 1600s, viewing human behavior as the result of predictable physical laws was troubling  The early influences on psychology came from the natural and physica
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