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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Terms.doc

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 1 Psychology The Evolution of a ScienceKey TermsPsychology The scientific study of mind and behaviorMind Our private inner experience of perceptions thoughts memories and feelingsBehavior Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animalsNativism The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inbornPhilosophical empiricism The philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experiencePhrenology A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are localized in specific regions of the brainPhysiology The study of biological processes especially in the human bodyStimulus Sensory input from the environmentReaction time The amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulusConsciousness A persons subjective experience of the world and the mindStructuralism The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mindIntrospection The subjective observation of ones own experienceFunctionalism The study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environmentNatural selection Charles Darwins theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generationsHysteria A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiencesUnconscious The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts feelings and actionsPsychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freuds approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors
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