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Chapter 5&6

PSYA01H3: Chapter 5 & 6

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Steve Joordens

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Helen  LiPSAY01)   Chapter 7: Consciousness Chapter 5.1: Biological Rhythms of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Sleep • Consciousness: is a person’s subjective awareness, including thoughts, perceptions, experiences of the world, and self -awareness o What is sleep? • Organisms evolved biological rhythms that are neatly adapted to cycles in environment o Bears => hibernation ( circannual cycle: “a yearly cycle”) • Circadian rhythms: internally driven daily cycles of approx. 24 hours affecting physiological & behavioral processes o Tendency to be asleep/ awake at specific times/ hungrier at times • One key brain structure => suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC) of hypothalamus o Cells in retina of eye relay messages about light levels in environment to SCN ▯ SCN communicates signals about light levels with pineal gland: releases hormone called melatonin: peaks in concentration at nighttime & reduced during wakefulness => because of this system, light is primary stimulus regulating human circadian rhythm ▯ Our circadian rhythms appear to change with age • Polysomnography: refers to a set of objective measurements used to examine physiological variable during sleep o Measure respiration o Thermometer => measure body temp o Electrical sensors attached to skin => muscle activity • Sleep cycles most defined by => electroencephalogram (EEG): device that measures brain waves o EEG=> in waveform o Characteristics of wakefulness: ▯ Frequency: number of up -down cycles every second ▯ Amplitude: height & depth of the up -down cycle ▯ Beta waves: high-frequency, low-amplitude waves • As individual begins to sleep, waves become slower, larger & more predictable o Alpha waves => signal that person may be daydreaming, meditating, starting to fall asleep 1. Stage 1: EEG (electroencephalogram) moves to Theta waves o Theta waves: frequency patterns even lower than alpha waves => Brain waves slow down & become higher in amplitude ▯ Breathing, blood pressure, heart rate all decrease slig htly as individual begins to sleep 2. Stage 2: Patterns are interrupted by short burst of activity callsleep spindles and K complexes, sleeper becomes somewhat more difficult to awaken ▯ Not complete understood, but evidence suggests => play role in helping maintain state of sleep & process of memory storage 3. Stages 3 and 4: Deepest stages of sleep => difficult to awaken, known as slow-wave sleep, in which EEG show activity called delta waves 4. Stage 5: REM Sleep, EEG patterns become high -frequency saw tooth waves, similar to beta waves, suggest that mind is as active as it is during waking • REM sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves, inhibited body movement, & rapid eye movements (REM) o Known as paradoxical sleep because EEG waves appear to rep. a state of wakefulness despite => still asleep Helen  LiPSAY01)   ▯ REM pattern => distinct that first four stages are known as => non -REM (NREM) sleep ▯ At end of first REM phase, cycle back toward deep sleep stages & back into REM sleep again ever 90-100 mins • Using an electrooculography during sleep, researchers found that sleepers wakened during REM periods reported having dreams much more often than those wakened during non-REM periods • Electrooculography (EOG): device to measure eye mov ement • During REM sleep, the pulse quickens, blood pressure rises, and there are telltale signs of sexual arousal. • REM sleep => critical to a good nights sleep • Lack of sleep => REM rebound: brains spend increased time in REM-phase sleep o Lack of REM sleep => most negative aspect of sleep deprivation, rather than actual amount of lost sleep time • Why sleep? Restore & repair hypothesis : idea that the body needs to restore energy levels & repaid any wear and tear on the body from the day’s activities • Lack of sleep => cognitive decline, emotional disturbances, impairs functioning of immune system o Sleep deprivation => can be more harmful/ fatal than food deprivation • Preserve & protect hypothesis : suggest that two more adaptive functions of sleep are preserving energy & protecting the organism from hard o Humans =>sleep occurs at night (disadvantage) o Animals =>e.g. lions & bears fall victim to predator & may sleep 15 hrs/day • Sleep deprivation: occurs when an individual cannot or does not sleep o Dangerous => drivers while mildly intoxicated => causes of fatal traffic accidents • Sleep displacement: occurs when an individual is prevented from sleeping at the normal time although she may be able to sleep earlier or later in the day than usual o Flying from one locatio n to another => time differences may affect body’s sleeping Helen  LiPSAY01)   ▯ Jet lag: is the discomfort a persons feels when sleep cycles are out of synchronization with light & darkness • Time zones they cross & how quickly • Easier to adjust when travelling west (find it easier to stay up longer than usual) • Travelling east => person must try to fall asleep earlier than usual (difficult) • The Interception of Dreams => Sigmund Freud o He viewed dreams as an unconscious expression of wish fulfillment • When we sleep, we lose power to suppress out urges o Create vivid imagery of dreams • Manifest content : the images & storylines that we dream about –sexuality & aggression o Bunch of random, bizarre imagery & events • Latent content: the actual symbolic meaning of a dream built on suppressed sexual/ aggressive urges o Because true meaning of dream is latent => Freud advocated dream work (recording & interpreting dreams) • Activation-synthesis hypothesis: suggests that dreams arise from brain activity originating from bursts of excitatory messages from the brainstem o Pons located in brain stem sends e xcitatory messages through thalamus to sensory & emotional areas of cortex => images & emotions that arise are woven into a story o Inhibitory signals relayed from pons down spinal cord =>prevents movement during dreaming ▯ Produces telltale signs of eye movements & EEG activity during REM sleep ▯ Burst of activities activates perceptu al areas of brain => producing imaginary sights/ sounds (emotional areas) ▯ Brain stem actions initial activation component ▯ Synthesis component arises as brain tries to make sense of all images • Because images are randomly activates, storyline of dream =>disjointed/ bizarre • Analogous to activation -synthesis theory of dreaming =>e.g. having a dozen different people giving you random word & mixed into a single message => will struggle to make sense of the result of message • Problem-solving theory: theory that thoughts & concerns are continuous from waking to sleeping, & that dreams may function to facilitate finding solutions to problems encountered while awake o Group of 14 students enrolled in psychology course (Propper et al 2007) ▯ Keeping journals of their dreams ▯ Students who watched & listened to most media coverage of events => report attack-related themes & imagery in dreams o Imply that the unconscious sleeping brain is actually devising a solution while we enjoy resting o Full nights sleep/ nap => aids memory formation ▯ Pulling an all-nighter may seem like a necessity =>need to study should be balanced by need to sleep (should study & sleep every night, not night before exam) • Insomnia (Insomnias): disorder characterized by extreme lack of sleep Helen  LiPSAY01)   o Not defined in terms of hours of sleep, but degree to which a person feels rested during day (American Psychiatric Ass ociations criteria) • Onset insomnia: occurs when a person has difficult falling asleep (30 mins or later) • Maintenance insomnia : occurs when an individual cannot easily return to sleep after waking in the night • Terminal insomnia: situation which a person wakes up too early- sometimes hours too early & cannot go back to sleep • Insomnias stem from internal sleep disturbances rather than external stimuli over which one has little control => neighbors persistence car alarm • Primary insomnia: cases that arise from an internal source & not result of another disorder (stress/ not getting enough sleep) • Secondary insomnia: result of other disorders (depression, physical problems such as recovery from back surgery, caffeine, nicotine, illegal drugs =>marijuana, ecstasy) • Nightmares: particularly vivid & disturbing dreams that occur during REM sleep o Can be so emotional ly charged that individual wakes up o Correlated with psychological distress • Night terrors: intense bouts of panic & arousal that awaken the individual, typi cally in a heighted emotional state o Person experiencing may call out/ scream/ fight back against imaginary attackers o Unlike nightmares, night terrors are not dreams o Occur during NREM sleep => majority who experience cannot recall dream content o More common in young children than adults o Increase in frequency during stressful periods (parents divorcing) • Restless legs syndrome : persistent feeling of discomfort in the legs & urge to continuously shift them into different positions o Affects 5-10% of population &vary of severity o Difficult to sleep => awake periodically at night to reposition their legs • REM behavior disorder => more severe/ potentially dangerous o Do not show typical restriction of movement during REM sleep => appear to be acting out the content of their dreams => because it occurs during REM sleep, individuals do not awaken until they have hurt themselves or someone else (Mike Birbiglia) • Somnambulism: sleepwalking, disorder that involves wandering & performing other activities while asleep • Sleep apnea: disorder characterized by the temporary inability to breathe during sleep (apnea: “without breathing”) o Person with apnea usually snores, apnea involves involuntary obstruction of the breathing passage o Treatment for mild apnea =>dental dev ices that hold mouth in specific position during sleep o Moderate-severe apnea=> Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to force air through nose, keeping airway open through increased air pressure o Sleep apnea can be caused by brain’s failure to regulate breathing ▯ Damage to/ deterioration of medulla of brain stem (responsible for controlling chest muscles during breathing) • Narcolepsy: less common disorder, in which sudden sleep attacks occurs in the middle of waking activities o May last a few seco nds Helen  LiPSAY01)   o Because REM sleep is associated with dreaming, people with narcolepsy often report vivid dream-like images even if they nit fully fall asleep o Why does it occur? Hormone called orexin: functions to maintain wakefulness ▯ Have fewer brain cells that pro duce orexin, resulting in greater difficulty maintaining wakefulness • Sleep state misperception (SSM) : condition in which a person underestimates her amount of sleep on a regular basis o Sometimes said to have paradoxical insomnia- believe cannot sleep enough => no physiological/ medical evidence to support that belief • Positive sleep state perception : occurs when individuals regularly overestimates their sleep o Produces slightly more problems in individual => begins to show signs of sleep deprivation • Help to sleep: o Snack/ warm milk o Nightcap o Drink of alcohol =>may make you sleepy; it disrupts quality of sleeping especially the REM cycle & may leave you feeling unrested the next day o Often turn to drugs to help them sleep => drugs prescribed for insomnia included sedatives such as barbiturates (Phenobarbital) and benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium) ▯ Problems that arise with their use although it manages to help with sleep Chapter 5.2: Altered States of Consciousness: Hypothesis, Mediati on & Disorders of Consciousness • Hypnosis (Greek hypno for “sleep”): procedure of inducing a heightened state of suggestibility o Not a trance, often portrayed in popular media • Hypnotist simply suggests changes, & subject is more likely (but not certaicomplu as a result of hypnosis: o Ideomotor suggestions: related to specific actions that could be performed, such as adopting a specific position o Challenge suggestions : indicate actions that are not to be performed, so that the subject appears to lose ability to person an action o Cognitive-perceptual suggestions : to remember or forget, or to experience altered perceptions such as reduced pain sensations • Hypnotic suggestion will not completely change an individual Helen  LiPSAY01)   o Could not suggest that an honest person rob a bank & expect the subject to comply • Dissociation theory : explains hypnosis as a unique state in which consciousness is divided into two parts: an observer and a hidden observer o Any skill that you have mastered, such as driving a car • Social-cognitive theory: explains hypnosis by emphasizing the degree to which beliefs & expectations contribute to increased suggestibility o Supported by experiments in which individuals are told either that they will be able to resist ideomotor suggestions or they will not o Response expectancy: whether the individual believed the treatment will work - plays large role in actual pain relief experienced • Most practical use for hypnosis: treatment of pain o Hypnosis generally works as well as drug treatments for acute pain: intense, temporary associated with a medical/ dental procedure o Somewhat effective for chronic pain: type of pain that lasts for long periods of time • Meditation: any procedure that involves a shift on consciousness to a state in which an individual is highly focused, aware, and in control of mental processes o Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) o Reducing stress, anxiety, depression => mindfulness meditation strong record of reducing pain, in both short-term experiments & long-term studied with chronic pain patients • Déjà vu: distinct feeling of having seen or experiences a situation that is impossible or unlikely to have previously occurred o Begins with an individual entering a new situation or having a subtle shift of attention & then it sets in- the feeling that I’ve been here before, or doing and seeing the same exact same things o Comes from studies of temporal lobe epilepsy ▯ Seizures tend to occur at the temporal lobes of cortex ▯ Some individuals with temporal lobe epileps y experience déjà vu regularly, right at onset of a seizure ▯ Temporal lobes include structure =>hippocampus (surrounding regions - the parahippocampal area => important for memory) ▯ Brain scans show that individuals prone to temporal lobe epilepsy - induced deja vu have decreased activity in the parahippocampal regions • One neurological explanation offered for déjà vu =>Visual information may be processed in two brain regions, albeit slightly faster in one area than in the other • Some forms of meditation such as MBSR are effective in controlling chronic pain • Coma: state marked by a complete loss of consciousness o Begins with a serious brain injury/ trauma o Enters a state => looks like sleeping on surface o Differs from sleep => brain stem reflexed are suppressed (e .g. pupils no longer dilate & contrast with changes in brightness) • Persistent vegetative state (PVS): state of minimal to no consciousness in which the patient’s eyes may be open, and the individual will develop sleep - wake cycles without clear signed of consciousness o Do not appear to focus on objects in visual field/ do not track movement o Hope for recovery if patient improves within first few months of PVS o Changes for recovery decrease sharply between 6 -12 months Helen  LiPSAY01)   • Minimally conscious state (MCS): disordered state of consciousness marked by the ability to show some behaviors that suggest at least consciousness, even if on an inconsistent basis o Can follow simple instructions, intentionally reaching/ grabbing objects, yes/no answers either verbally or thro ugh gestures/ produce any inte lligible speech Chapter 5.3: Drugs and Conscious Experience • Psychoactive drugs: substances that affect thinking, behavior, perception & emotion o Can speed up nervous system/ slow it down/ stimulate its pleasure centers or distort how it processes the world • Stimulants: category of drugs that speed up the nervous system, typically enhancing wakefulness & alertness o Cocaine => synthesized from coca leaves => South American, Peru ▯ Can chew leaves, snorted, absorbed into blood stream, smoked in pipe o Amphetamines =>(prescription drugs) => methylphenidate (Ritaline) & modafinil (Provigil) => typically prescribed for attention -deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy o Other abused stimulants not prescribed drugs => me thamphetamine ▯ Notorious for causing significant neurological as well as external physical problems ▯ Often experience deterioration of facial features (teeth, gums) ▯ First, lead to neglect of basic dietary & hygiene care ▯ Second, drug is often manufactured from potent cocktail of substances (hydrochloric acid/ farm fertilizer) o Stimulants such as cocaine/ meth => affect neural activity in reward centers of brain ▯ Cocaine => blocks reuptake of dopamine by binding to presynaptic terminals => allows excess amounts of this neurotransmitter to remain in the synapse & continue binding with postsynaptic release of dopamine & norepinephrine => slows their reuptake Helen  LiPSAY01)   • Ecstasy (MDMA): typically classified as a stimulant, but also has hallucinogenic effects o Developed in early 1900’s => possible prescription drug o Labeled “club drug” o Heightens physical sensations & known to increase social bonding & compassion among those who are under its influence o Heat stroke/ dehydration=> major risks with use especially when drug taken in a rave where there is a high level of physical exertion from dancing in an overheated environment • Hallucinogenic drugs : substances that produce perceptual distortions o Distortions may be visual, auditory, sometimes tactile in nature (experience o f crawling sensations against skin) o Commonly used: LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) => lab made (synthetic) drug => 12 hours o Can occur in nature: psilocybin (a mushroom) and mescaline (derived from the peyote cactus) o Have very long lasting effects o Cause powerful emotional experiences that range from extreme euphoria=>fear =>panic => paranoia o Short-acting hallucinogens=> popular for recreational use o Ketamine & DMT (dimethltryptamine) => last for about an hour ▯ Ketamine (street names include “specia l K” and “Vitamin K”) • Used as surgical anesthetic => on battle field • Frequent used in clubs => induces dream -like states, memory loss, dizziness, confusion & distorted sense of body ownership o Blocks receptors for glutamate => an excitatory neurotransmitter (memory) ▯ DMT (occurs naturally) => bark from trees in native to Central/ South America & on skin surface of certain roads • Found in very small, naturally produced amounts in human nerves system • Plays a role in sleep & dreaming & even out -of-body experiences • DMT used in US primarily for recreational purposes • Salvia divinorum: type of sage plant that grows naturally in Central/ South American o Combine juices from leaves with tea drinking/ leaves chewed/ smoked • Marijuana: is a drug comprising the leaves & buds of Cannabis plant that produces a combo of hallucinogenic, stimulant & relaxing (narcotic) effects Helen  LiPSAY01)   o Most commonly abused drug in US o The bud of the Cannabis plant is part typically smokes, contains high concentration of compound called tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) ▯ THC binds to cannabinoid receptors => distributed across various regions of brain ▯ Induces feelings of euphoria, relaxation, & heightened & sometime s distorted sensory experiences o Short term effect => memory impairment => likely because of abundance of cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus (key region: memory) • Opiates (also called narcotics): drugs such as heroin & morphine that reduce pain & induce extremely intense feelings of euphoria o These drugs bind to endorphin receptors in the nervous system o Endorphins (“endogenous morphine”): neurotransmitters that reduce pain & produce pleasurable sensations – effects magnified by opiates o Naturally occurring opiates => poppy plants (Asia & Middle East) o Common => medial/ emergency room (e.g. drug fentanyl used in emergency to treat people in extreme pain/ street version of fentanyl=> “China White”) o Treating opiate addiction => challenging ▯ People who are addicted to opiates/ highly addictive drugs enter negative cycle of having to use these drugs simply to ward of side effects rather than to achieve sense of euphoria they have experienced when first used o Methadone => an opioid (synthetic opiate) => binds to opiate receptors but does not give same kind of high that heroin does ▯ Can help people who are addicted to opiates avoid painful withdrawals as they learn to cope without the drug o Another opioid =>oxycodone (OxyContin) => helped many peo ple escape & avoid severe pain with few problems ▯ Has very high abuse potential ▯ Often misused => through illegal means (no prescription) • Sedative drugs (sometimes referred to as “downers”): depress activity of the central nervous system o Barbiturates => early form of medication used to treat anxiety & promote sleep ▯ High doses can shut down the brain stem regions that regulates breathing => medical use has largely been discontinued in favor of safer drugs ▯ High potential for abuse => actually reduce amount o f REM sleep o Newer forms of sedative drugs => benzodiazepines => prescription drugs => Xanax, Ativan, Valium ▯ Increase effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) => an inhibitory neurotransmitter => helps reduce feelings of anxiety/ panic ▯ Major advantage ov er barbiturates=> do no
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