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Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 9

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 9 9.0Language and Thought - Cognition- composed of distinct abilities - Five key higher cognitive functions:  acquiring and using language  forming concepts and categories  making decisions  solving problems  Reasoning - Impairment of these cognitive abilities can result in major and lasting disruptions to our lives. 9.1Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning - Bees communicate location of food source by doing “waggle dance” indicates both direction and distance of food source from hive - Vervet monkeys have three different warning calls  Leopard call- provokes them to climb higher into a tree  Eagle call- makes them look up into the sky  Snake call - Language- system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning. - Grammar- set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages. - Three major differences between human and animals  The complex structure of human language  Humans use words to refer to intangible things  Use language to name, categorize, and describe things to ourselves when we think 9.2The Complex Structure of Human Language - Human language 1 to 3 million years ago - written system 6,000 years ago - 4,000 human languages grouped into about 50 language families - Phonemes -smallest units of sound recognizable as speech rather than as random noise  Example- B and p are classified as separate phonemes in English because they differ in the way they are produced by the human speaker - Phonological rules- indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds  If rules are violated, resulting speech sounds odd we describe it as speaking with an accent. - Morphemes- combine phonemes, the smallest meaningful units of language - A sentence–can be broken down into smaller units: phrases, morphemes, and phonemes - Grammar rules that generally fall into two categories:  Rules of morphology-indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words  Content morphemes- refer to things and events (e.g., “cat,” “dog,” “take”).  Function morphemes- serve grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together (“and,” “or,” “but”) or indicating time (“when”). o half of the morphemes in human languages are function morphemes o function morphemes make human language grammatically complex  Rules of syntax- words can be combined to form phrases and sentences. o Example: every sentence must contain one or more nouns, which may be combined with adjectives or articles to create noun phrases o Sentence also must contain one or more verbs, which may be combined with adverbs or articles to create verb phrases. - Deep structure- refers to the meaning of a sentence. - Surface structure -refers to how a sentence is worded.  Example: “The dog chased the cat” and “The cat was chased by the dog” mean the same thing but on the surface their structures are different.  To generate sentence first begin with deep structure and create surface structure  When you comprehend a sentence you do the reverse 9.3Language Development - Average 1-year-old has a vocabulary of 10 words - Expands to over 10,000 words in the next 4 years  child learns about six or seven new words every day - Three characteristics of language development  Children make few errors while learning to  Over 3 million ways to rearrange the words in any 10-word sentence, but only a few will be correct  children’s passive mastery of language develops faster than their active mastery - Infants can distinguish among all of the contrasting sounds that occur in all human languages - Between ages of 4 and 6 months babble speech sounds are made  Example: d and t appear in infant babbling before m and n.  Even deaf babies babble sounds they’ve never h
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