Textbook Notes (368,317)
Canada (161,798)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

4 Pages
43 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9 9.0Language and Thought - Cognition- composed of distinct abilities - Five key higher cognitive functions:  acquiring and using language  forming concepts and categories  making decisions  solving problems  Reasoning - Impairment of these cognitive abilities can result in major and lasting disruptions to our lives. 9.1Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning - Bees communicate location of food source by doing “waggle dance” indicates both direction and distance of food source from hive - Vervet monkeys have three different warning calls  Leopard call- provokes them to climb higher into a tree  Eagle call- makes them look up into the sky  Snake call - Language- system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning. - Grammar- set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages. - Three major differences between human and animals  The complex structure of human language  Humans use words to refer to intangible things  Use language to name, categorize, and describe things to ourselves when we think 9.2The Complex Structure of Human Language - Human language 1 to 3 million years ago - written system 6,000 years ago - 4,000 human languages grouped into about 50 language families - Phonemes -smallest units of sound recognizable as speech rather than as random noise  Example- B and p are classified as separate phonemes in English because they differ in the way they are produced by the human speaker - Phonological rules- indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds  If rules are violated, resulting speech sounds odd we describe it as speaking with an accent. - Morphemes- combine phonemes, the smallest meaningful units of language - A sentence–can be broken down into smaller units: phrases, morphemes, and phonemes - Grammar rules that generally fall into two categories:  Rules of morphology-indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words  Content morphemes- refer to things and events (e.g., “cat,” “dog,” “take”).  Function morphemes- serve grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together (“and,” “or,” “but”) or indicating time (“when”). o half of the morphemes in human languages are function morphemes o function morphemes make human language grammatically complex  Rules of syntax- words can be combined to form phrases and sentences. o Example: every sentence must contain one or more nouns, which may be combined with adjectives or articles to create noun phrases o Sentence also must contain one or more verbs, which may be combined with adverbs or articles to create verb phrases. - Deep structure- refers to the meaning of a sentence. - Surface structure -refers to how a sentence is worded.  Example: “The dog chased the cat” and “The cat was chased by the dog” mean the same thing but on the surface their structures are different.  To generate sentence first begin with deep structure and create surface structure  When you comprehend a sentence you do the reverse 9.3Language Development - Average 1-year-old has a vocabulary of 10 words - Expands to over 10,000 words in the next 4 years  child learns about six or seven new words every day - Three characteristics of language development  Children make few errors while learning to  Over 3 million ways to rearrange the words in any 10-word sentence, but only a few will be correct  children’s passive mastery of language develops faster than their active mastery - Infants can distinguish among all of the contrasting sounds that occur in all human languages - Between ages of 4 and 6 months babble speech sounds are made  Example: d and t appear in infant babbling before m and n.  Even deaf babies babble sounds they’ve never h
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit