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Chapter 9

Psychology - Chapter 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Tanzina Mohsin

PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9.1: Measuring Aptitude and >Intelligence: is the ability to think, understand, reason and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacles > Intelligence reflects how one recognizes and solves problems rather than how much you know > Achievement tests: measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has acquired. - Quizzes and tests taken in college/uni are mainly achievement tests - measure knowledge in a certain area > Aptitude tests: are designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a specific range of tasks - The ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery) measures aptitude for the entire range of military jobs; from languages and communications to tank and helicopter mechanics. - measure a person’s potential to perform a range of specific tasks > Achievement tests measure current abilities and aptitude tests predict future performance. > Psychometrics: the measurement of psychological traits and abilities, including personality, attitudes and intelligence. > Items on tests and questionnaires are constructed and evaluated for their relevance to the psychological trait they purport to measure. > Psychometrics has 2 important concepts: reliability and validity > Validity: the degree to which a test actually measures the trait or ability it is intended to measure >Predictive Validity: the degree to which a test predicts future performance > Reliability: the measurement of the degree to which a test produces consistent results. > Test-retest reliability: a method of evaluating reliability > An important aspect of test construction is standardization > Standardized test: is a test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform way across large numbers of individuals. > Standardization allows for comparison across individuals. > Norms:statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score - the norm or average for most in
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