CHAPTER 9.1: Measuring Aptitude and
>Intelligence: is the ability to think, understand, reason and cognitively adapt to and
> Intelligence reflects how one recognizes and solves problems rather than how much you
> Achievement tests: measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has
- Quizzes and tests taken in college/uni are mainly achievement tests
- measure knowledge in a certain area
> Aptitude tests: are designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a
specific range of tasks
- The ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery) measures aptitude for the
entire range of military jobs; from languages and communications to tank and helicopter
- measure a person’s potential to perform a range of specific tasks
> Achievement tests measure current abilities and aptitude tests predict future performance.
> Psychometrics: the measurement of psychological traits and abilities, including
personality, attitudes and intelligence.
> Items on tests and questionnaires are constructed and evaluated for their relevance to the
psychological trait they purport to measure.
> Psychometrics has 2 important concepts: reliability and validity
> Validity: the degree to which a test actually measures the trait or ability it is intended to
>Predictive Validity: the degree to which a test predicts future performance
> Reliability: the measurement of the degree to which a test produces consistent results.
> Test-retest reliability: a method of evaluating reliability
> An important aspect of test construction is standardization
> Standardized test: is a test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered
and scored in a uniform way across large numbers of individuals.
> Standardization allows for comparison across individuals.
> Norms:statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score
- the norm or average for most in