Textbook Notes (369,203)
Canada (162,462)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 1

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter One The Science of Psychology What is Psychology? - A science based on discovering and explaining the causes of behaviour. - Literally means the science of the mind, but misleading because science of behaviour not mind. Why Behaviour is Studied - To provide an explanation for behaviour, psychologists must: 1) Describe it. Learn how to categorize and measure behaviour so that the phenomena being observed is universal. 2) Discover the causes of the observed behaviour = explain it. - Causal events are events that cause other events (including behaviour). - There are different levels of explanation even when the same behaviour is being studied; psychology is such a diverse discipline. Ex. Seeking physiological causes (ex. Activity of nerves) vs. Metaphorical sense (ex. Hypothetical mental states ex. Love, anger, fear) - Behaviour is studied because: 1) Intellectual curiosity. 2) May solve our most important and pressing problems. 3) Human behaviour is root of many of worlds problems (Ex. Poverty, crime, over-population, terrorism, war, etc.) 4) Health related problems caused by human behaviour (Ex. Cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, stress-related illnesses). Fields of Psychology Areas of Psychological Research - Research psychologists differ in terms of: 1) Type of behaviour they investigate. 2) Causal events they analyze. - Physiological Psychology: subdivision of behavioural neuroscience that studies neural mechanisms of behaviour. Study the role of the brain in behaviour - They study learning, memory, sensory process, emotional behaviour, motivation, sexual behaviour and sleep in non-human animals, which helps them better understand human behaviour. - Ex. Physiological psychologists discovered that all drugs that have potential for addiction all act on a particular system in the brain that is involved with our reaction to pleasurable events. The drugs artificially stimulate the pleasure that is otherwise naturally produced. They can now use this to develop medication to help addicts stop their habits. - Comparative Psychology: study of the behaviour of members of a variety of species to explain behaviour in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environment. Study the evolution of behaviour by comparing behavioural capacities of various behaviours. - They study courting and mating, predation and aggression, defensive behaviour, and parental behaviour. - Ex. Comparative studies of the effects of drugs have shown that all species of mammals react like humans to addictive drugs. If the animals are allowed to inject a drug into their vein, they will become addicted to it. - Behaviour analysis: Studies the effects of the environment on behaviour primarily, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviours themselves. Behaviours that product pleasant www.notesolution.com
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