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PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 1 what is psychology? Psychology scientific study of the discovery and explaining the causes of behavior; application of the finding of psychological research to the solution of problems Literally means the study of the mind Incorporates the study of the brain bc its the organ that contains the mind and controls behavior Explaining behavior Ultimate goal understand human behavior and explain why ppl do what they do How do psychologists provide an explanation of behavior? Describe it become familiar with thing tht ppl do; learn how to categorize and measure behavior so tht tests can be repeated with similar results Discover the causes of the behavior observed events responsible for its occurrence Casual events events tht cause other events (inc behav) to occur Different levels of explanation result in diverse discipline Look inside org, in a literal sense, seeking physiological causes Look inside org, in a metaphorical sense, explaining behavior in terms of hypothetical mental states (anger, fear, curiosity, love) Look only for events in the env (inc things tht other ppl do) tht cause behaviors to occur The goals for psychological research Intellectual curiosity Holds the promise of showing us how to solve our most important and pressing problems Human behavior is at the root of most of the worlds problems Poverty, crime, overpopulation, drug addiction, bigotry, pollution, terrorism, and war Fields of psychology Research psychologist differ from one another in 2 principal ways In the types of behavior they investigate In the casual events they analyze Ex: focus on physiological events vs. environmental effects Physiological psychology examine the physiology of behavior (esp of the nervous system) Studying animals = good model Study learning, memory, sensory processes, emotional behavior, motivation, sexual behavior, and sleep Comparative psychology the study of the behavior of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behavior in terms of evolutionary adaptation to the environment Comparing how animals and humans both react to drugs Behavior analysis branch of psych that studies the effects of the env events on behavior Effects of the consequences of behaviors on the behaviors themselves primarily interested in learning and motivation believe that an imp cause of a specific behavior is the relationship btwn the behavior and some consequent event Behavior genetics - branch of psych that studies the role of genetics in behavior Studies the role of genetics in behavior by examining similarities in physical and behavioral characteristics of blood relatives, whose genes are more similar than those of unrelated individuals. Cognitive psychology study of mental processes and complex behaviors Ex: perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behavior, concept formation, and problem solving Events tht cause behavior consist of functions of the human brain tht occur in response to env events Explanations involve characteristics of inferred mental processes Imagery, attention, and mechanisms of language Cognitive neuroscience branch of psych interested in same thing studied by cognitive psychos but attempts to discover the particular brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes closely allied w/ cognitive psych and physiological psych study the behavior of ppl w/ brain damage developmental psychology study of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development (esp of children) some study those of adolescences and adulthood (effects of aging) development of behavior throughout the lifespan social psychology study of the effects of people on people Ex: perception, cause-and-effect relations in human interactions, attitudes and opinions, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and emotional behaviors (inc aggression and sexual behavior) Personality psychology study of individual differences in temperament and patterns of behavior Look for casual events in a persons history, both genetic and environmental Evolutionary psychology seeks to explain cognitive, social, and personality aspects of psychology by looking at their adaptive significance during the evolution of modern species use the theory evolution my means of natural selection as guiding principle cross-cultural psychology the study of the impact of culture on behavior clinical psychology the study of mental disorders and problems of adjustment mostly include practitioners who try to help ppl solve their problems, wtevr the causes clinical neuropsychologists specialize in the identification and treatment of the behavioral consequences of nervous system disorders and injuries health psychologists user their skills to promote behaviors and lifestyles that maintain health and prevent illness consumer psychologists helps organizations tht manufacture products or buy products or services community psychologists concerned with the welfare of individuals in the social system (usually disadvantaged ppl) favors modifying and improving the system rather than treating the individual as a problem organizational psychologists deal with the workplace; works to increase efficiency and effectiveness of organizations engineering psychologists studies the ways that ppl and machines work together and helps design machines that are safer and easier to operate forensic psychologists studies human behavior as it may relate to the legal system and to matters involving criminal justice the rise of psychology as a science th started in the late 19 century in Germany philosophical roots of psychology animism belief tht all animals and moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force common to attribute a life-giving animus, spirit, to anything tht seemed to move or grow independently Bc believed own bodies controlled by their minds/spirits, applied same thing for sun, moon, wind, and tides Psych must be based on assumption that behavior is subject to physical laws, not just own will allowing us to discover these laws objectively using the scientific method Rene Descartes Rationalism (pursuit of truth through reason) 17 century French philosopher and mathematician Father of modern physiological psychology Advocated a sober, impersonal investigation of natural phenomena using sesory experience and human reasoning Assumed that the world was purely mechanical entity tht ran its course w/o divine intervention after god did his part Believed animal were creatures of natural world only, thus behaviors were controlled by natural causes and could be understood through science Viewed human body similarly ma
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