Psychology Chapter 17
Session 17.1 Personnel Psychology: Hiring and Maintaining an Effective Workforce
- I/O, Industrial Organizational psychology is the scientific study of behavior and thought
in working settings.
- According to the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology (SIOP), the field serves
three main goals: (1) To help employers deal with employees fairly, (2) To help make
jobs more interesting and satisfying and (3) to help workers be more productive.
- Idea of I/O emerged in the late 1800 from a desire to develop a management practices
that would have the same degree of precision as engineering.
- Personnel psychology finds the raw strength and talent and turning it into a productive
workforce. From helping management hire people with potential and making sure they
were adequately trained, managing and motivating employees, evaluating performance. -
JobAnalysis: Understanding the Requirements for the job - I/O Psychologist performs job analysis, the process of writing a detailed description of
position in terms of the required knowledge, abilities, skills and other characteristics
required to succeed as well as evaluating the value of the position for the over-all
- As part of the job analysis, psychologist identify the KSAOs, the knowledge, skills,
abilities and other traits required for a specific job.
- Job crafting, which means taking on or creating additional roles and task for a position
Selection: Hiring the Right People
- The idea worker would be someone who’s KSAOs match those required for the job.
a.) Unstructured Interview, an employer discusses a variety of job – and personality
related topics with a candidate with relatively few prepared questions to guide the
b.) StructuredInterview,present the same set of questions to each job candidate with
planned follow-up questions. Many Structured interview also include situational
interview questions. How would individual respond to a situations? - Validation Studies in which researchers administer tests to a large sample of incumbents
and evaluate their performance to find correlations between to performance and
personality traits or cognitive abilities.
- Conscientiousness can predict job performances, it shows the high conscientiousness is
associated with better job performance than low conscientiousness scores among
- - Cognition-based selection tests are tests which are correlated with cognitive ability,
predict job performance better than self-report personality tests.
- Cognitive tests must go through validation studies that serve to identify who should be
selected and who should be turned away.
- -Problem with cognitive tests is that it may be based on culturally specific skills or
knowledge and they may also induce stereotype treat a phenomenon in which a person
unintentionally conforms to a stereotype.
- TheAssessment Center capitalize on multiple approaches to personnel selection by
combining personality, cognitive and sometimes physical ability tests.
- Job simulations – role playing activities that are very similar to situations encountered in
the actual job.Arelated activity is the in-basket technique in which prospective
employees sort through a set of incoming tasks and respond to them as if they were actual
- Performance appraisal the evaluation of current employees is very important.
- What needs to be evaluated?
Employers often want to evaluate some more specific aspects of work performance:
a.) Task performance describes how well an employee performs the assigned duties for
his or her position in the organization. b.) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is the degree to which an employee
contributes beyond what is expected (For example exceptional teamwork, leadership).
c.) Counterproductive behavior includes actions that interfere with one’s own
productivity, such as absenteeism, lateness, dishonesty, and inappropriate
- Who conducts the Evaluation?
Supervisor has only one perspective when evaluating employees that is the top-down
- Multisource assessment or 360-degree feedback provides evaluation information from
many different perspectives within and beyond an organization. The 360-degree analogy
reminds us that the employee receives feedback from all angles.
- In theory, 360-degree feedback is a great method of employee evaluation because it
covers all aspets of the job: The supervisor can look over workload and productivity, the