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Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

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CHAPTER 1 NOTES Animism The belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force. Psychology as a science must be based on the assumption that behaviour is strictly subject to physical laws, just as any other natural phenomenon. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French philosopher and mathematician. Has been called the father of modern philosophy and of a biological tradition that led to modern physiological psychology. DESCARTES BELIEVED THAT THE MIND HAD FREE WILL-THE ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS FOR WHICH IT WAS MORALLY RESPONSIBLE. Dualism: -the belief that all reality can be divided into two distinct entities: mind and matter. Extended things as physical bodies and thinking things as minds. He believed that physical bodies do not think and that minds are not made or ordinary matter. WAS NOT THE FIRST TO PROPOSE DUALISM. He however thought different from his predecessors in one important way: SUGGEST A CASUAL LINK EXISTED BETWEEN THE MIND AND ITS PHYSICAL HOUSING. Descartes reasoned that the mind controlled the movements of the body, while the body, through its senses or organs, supplied the mind with information about what was happening in the environment. He hypothesised that this interaction between the mind and the body took place in the PINEAL GLAND (small organ on top of the brain stem). When the mind decided to perform an action, it tilted the pineal body in a particular direction, causing fluid to flow from the brain into the proper set of nerves. This flow of liquid caused the appropriate muscles to inflate and move. HE CAME UP WITH THIS IDEA WHEN HE WAS GREATLY IMPRESSED BY THE MOVING STATUES IN THE ROYAL GARDENS. DESCARTES RATIONALISM(PURSUIT OF TRUTH THROUGH REASON) WAS REPLACED BY EMPIRICISM(PURSUIT OF TRUTH THROUGH OBSERVATION AND EXPERIENCE). Locke rejected the belief that ideas were innately present in an infants mind. He proposed that ALL KNOWLEDGE MUST COME THROUGH EXPERIENCE. HE IMPLIED THAT OUR MIND WERE EMPTY AT BIRTH, AND READY TO ACCEPT THE WRITINGS OF EXPERIENCE. Locke believed that knowledge developed though linkages of simple, primary sensations: simple ideas combined to form complex ones. www.notesolution.com
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