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Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Illes
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 3 NOTES The Development of Evolutionary Theory Darwin argued that, over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means. His concept of biological evolution is that changes take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time stands as the primary explanation of the origin of life. Adaptive significance is the effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Ultimate causes are evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations. Proximate causes are immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour. To understand the present, we must understand the past the history of the individual and history of our species. We behave as we do because we are members of the human species an ultimate cause and because we have learned to act in special ways proximate cause. Culture is the sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people. No theory of behaviour can be complete without considering the role of evolution. Alfred Russell Wallace devised the theory of natural selection at about the same time Darwin did. Yet we only remember Darwin for natural selection. Doctrine of essentialism a view dating back to Plato that all living things belong to a fixed class or kind, defined by an essence that characterizes it alone. Artificial selection is the procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics. Natural selection the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more offspring than will other animals. Darwin came to the realization of natural selection in 1838 but did not publish his theory until 20 years later. The book by Malthus inspired both Darwin and Wallace. www.notesolution.com
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