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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Learning and Behaviour Learning an adpative process in which the tendency to perform particular behaviour is changed by experience as conditions change we learn new behaviours and eliminate old ones learning can only be observed through behaviour, but some behaviour is not a result of learning, and some learning doesnt produce a change is behaviour experience alters chemistry of brain these alterations affect how NS responds to subsequent events Performance behavioural change produced by internal changes brought about by learning (evidence that learning has occured) factors such as fatigue and motivation can affect behaviour so psychologists also look for specific aspects of performance such as durability and specifity three types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning all involve cause and effect relationships with environment and behaviour learn which stimuli are trivial and which are important; learn to make adaptive responses and to avoid maladaptive ones; learn to recognize conditions that reponse would be useful or if more appropriate reponse exists these types of learning are building blocks for complex behaviours Habituation: we react automatically to events: orienting response organism directs appropriate sensory organ toward source of novel stimulus habituation simplest form of learning: learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly George Humphrey experiment with snails, got used to tapping so wouldnt retreat into shell from evolutionary perspective waste of time and energy Wicks and Rankin used worm Nemoda and subjected them to taps or heat found that this withdrawing effect occurs through neurons that respond to mechanical stimulus, regardless of stimulus could produce habituation to tap-elicited stimulus but not to heat shows they learned something about tap and could distinguish it from reaction to source of heat only had 302 neurons in NS short term habituation simplest form long term habituation animals with more complex nervous system pattern of experience plays a role in distinguishing long-term and short-term: when sitmuli are massed into quick repetitions, habituation is rapid but ST when sitmuli are presented in small groups that are spaced over time, habituation is slower but LT evidence that 2 different neural mechanisms are responsible for this www.notesolution.comClassical Conditioning: invovled learning about conditions that predict that a significant event will occur Pavlov noticed dogs salivated when they saw research assistant come into room so he set up experiment with bell and food and dogs learned to salivate when they heard bell ring Classical Conditioning process by which a response normally elicitied by one stimulus (UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (CS) as well sequence and timing is important unconditional stimulus stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response unconditional response - behaviour itself that is naturally elicited by UCS conditional stimulus stimulus that, because of repeated association with UCS, eventually elicits conditional response conditional response response elicited by CR Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning: two funcitons: ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predicts occurence of an important event allows learner to make appropriate response faster and more effectively siamese fighting fish more likely to win fight if they were given stimulus (CS) that intruding male (UCS) would enter territory blue gouramis more likely to mate sooner and produce more offspring when they received stimulus (CS) signalling approaching female (UCS) learning that occurs with biologically significant UCS is more resistant to subsequent modifications stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some properties of important stimuli with which they have been associated and thus become able to modify behaviour neutral stimulus becomes desirable when it is associated with desirable stimulus or becomes undesirable when it is associated with undesirable stimulus specific properties of UCS become associated with CS - UCS takes on symbolic value Ward-Robinson demonstrated this with pigeons where they pecked at light when sound went on (paired sound CS with food UCS) adaptive significance is so general that even nematode exhibits it Wen placed worms in solution of Na+ or Cl- with bacteria; when placed with patches on ions and no bacteria, worm migrated to ions thinking there was food Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning: discovered 7 interesting phenomena: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and discrimination Acquisition: acquisition time during wich CR appears and increases in frequency www.notesolution.com
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