Textbook Notes (368,333)
Canada (161,803)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 5

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Steve Joordens

Consciousness 51 biological rhythms of consciousness Consciousness a persons subjective awareness including thoughts perceptions experiences of the world and selfawareness Circadian rhythmsyearly cycle internally driven daily cycles of approximately 24 hours affecting physiological and behavioural processesRegulated by daylight interacting with our nervous and endocrine hormonal system Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCNcommunicates signals about light levels with the pinealglandpineal gland releases a hormone melatonin Which peaks in concentration at nighttime and is reduced during wakefulnessPeople actually do show higher alertness and cognitive functioning during their preferred time of day Organisms biological rhythms Bears knows for hibernating during winter monthsThe stages of sleepPolysomnography a set of objective measurements used to examine physiological variables during sleep Measure respiration Thermometer measure body temperature Electrical sensors attached to the skin measure muscle activity around the eyes and other parts of the body Electroencephalogram EEGwaveform measures brain waves frequency Beta waveshigh frequency lowamplitude wavescharacteristic of wakefulness Irregular nature the bursts of activity in different regions of the cortexsign of alert Alpha waves slow frequency highamplitude waves sign of sleep daydreaming meditatingStage 1 theta waves waves slow down and higher Breathing blood pressure and heart rate decease slightly Stage 2 sleep spindles and K complexes EEG activity Fewer external stimulilightsound Stage 3 delta waves deepest stage of sleep Stage 4 difficult to awaken Unique stage REM sleep a stage of sleep characterized by quickening brain waves inhibited body movement and rapid eye movements REMParadoxicalsleep cuz the EEG waves appear to represent a state of wakefulness depite the fact that we remain asleep REMpattern so distinct so first four stages as known collectively as nonREM NREM sleep REM rebound phenomenonbrains spend an increased time in REMphase sleep when given the chance Lack of REM sleep may be the most negative aspect of sleep deprivation Why need sleepTheories of SleepRestore and repair hypothesis the idea that the body needs to restore energy levels repair any wear and tear on the body from the days activities Preserve and protect hypothesis suggests that twin ire adaptive functions of sleep are preserving energy and protecting the organism from harm Sleep deprivation and sleep displacement Sleep deprivationoccurs when an individual cannot or does not sleepSleep displacement occurs when an individual is prevented from sleeping at the normal time although she may be able to sleep earlier or later in the day than usual Jet lagthe discomfort a person feels when sleep cycles are out synchronization with light and darknessTheories of DreamingThe Psychoanalytic ApproachManifest content the images and storylines that we dream about actually involve sexuality and aggression Latent content the actual symbolic meaning of a dream built on suppressed sexual or aggressive urges Entirely subject to interpretation Skeptical
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