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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Exam Notes - PSYA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

BY DAVE S 2014Chapter 1 Introducing Psychological Science Friday May 9 2014401 PM11 The Science of Psychology p3Anthropomorphismthe act of treating others or animals like peoplePsychologyThe scientific study of behaviour thought and experienceScientific MethodWay of learning about the world through collecting observations proposing explanations for the observations develoing theories to explain them and using the theories to make predictionsHypothesisA testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured ex Cigarette smoking causes cancer Exercise improves memory abilityTestable hypothesisA hypothesis that can be confirmed or rejected you do not prove a hypothesisPseudoscienceIdeas that are presented as science but do not actually utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedureTheoryAn explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent wholeFalsifiableAny scientific theory must be falsifiable meaning they can be proved false with new evidenceTheoriesTheories are not the same things as opinions or beliefsTheories are not equally possibleA measure of a Good theory is not the true number of people who believe it to be trueBiopsychosocial ModelIs a means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological psychological and sociocultural factorsBiological Influencesbrain structures chemicals hormones drug effectsPsychological Influenceshow a persons thoughts experiences emotions and personality constitute hisher psychological makeupSociocultural Influenceshow family peers and immediate social situation influence how you think feel and behaveScientific LiteracyAbility to understand analyze and apply scientific informationStudying TechniquesMassing breaking up a large pile of cards into smaller groups and moving through each pile separately1Spacing leaving the cards in one big stack and moving through them one at a time2In contract to massing spacing means that there is more time between seeingeach individual cardSpacing has been shown to be the more helpful techniqueCritical ThinkingInvolves exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others and with our own assumptions and beliefsResearch points to a core set of habitsskills for developing critical thiningBe curious1Examine the nature and source of the evidence not all research is of equal quality2Examine assumptions and biases including ones own assumptions3Avoid overly emotional thinking4Tolerate ambiguity most complex issues do not have clearcut answers5Consider Alternative viewpoints and alternative interpretations of the evidence6FateSomething we are often to advised to avoid temptingex John applies to Stanford His mom who is highly optimistic sends him a Stanford tshirt to wear even before he is acceptedJohn wears the shirtWill he be accepted1John stuffs it into his drawer Will he be accepted2Many would say no if he were to ewear the shirt People do attach a lot of significance to coincidental eventsPrinciple of ParsimonyThe simplest of all competing explanations of a phenomenon should be the ones we accept12 How Psychology Became a Science p14EssentialismThe term of essentialism is used to explain the very human tendency to ascribe significance to certain instances of some objects but not to others ex startingat early age we begging to essentialize certain objects consider the child who loses a worn teddy bear and cannot be consoled b a fuzzy new oneEmpiricismsA philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experienceDeterminismThe belief that all events are governed by lawful causeandeffort relationships Free Will vs DeterminismZeitgeist refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture a
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