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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Exam Notes - PSYA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 2 Reading and Evaluating Scientific ResearchBY DAVE S 2014Friday May 9 2014401 PM21 Principles of Scientific ResearchObjectivityAssumes that certain facts about the world can be observed and tested independently from the individual ex the scientists who describes themSubjectiveAs soon as people observe an event their interpretations of it becomes subjective meaning that their knowledge of the event is shaped by prior beliefs expectations experiences and even their moodThe Five Characteristics of It is based on measurements that are Objective Valid and Reliable OVR1Quality Scientific ResearchIt can be generalized G2It uses techniques that reduce bias B3It is made public P4It can be replicatedR5Objective MeasurementsThe measure of an entity or behaviour that within an allowed margin of error is consistent across instruments and observersEx holding everything constant a single object should weight the same using multiple functioning scalesweight is something that can be measured objectivelyVariableRefers to the object concept or event being measuredSelf ReportingA method in which reponses are provided directly by the people who are being studies typically through facetoface phone interviews phone surveys paper and pencil tests and webbased questionnaires Self reports are often obtained in the form of a survey that includes scales measuring attitudes opinions beliefs and abilities ex shyness mood political orientation etcOperational definitionsAre statements that describe the procedures or operations and specific measures that are used to record observationsReliabilityWhen it provides consistent and stable answers measure of consistencyValidityThe degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims to measure ex measuring intelligence based on shoe size not reliable most likely if bad resultsGeneralizingWhen we apply information and findings from one person to anotherGeneralizability Refers to the degree to which one set of results can be applied to other situations individuals or eventsPopulationThe group that researchers want to generalize aboutSampleA select group of population membersOnce the sample has been studied then the results may be generalized to the population as a wholeRandom SampleEvery individual f a population has an equal chance of being selected Can helpresearch results generalize across individualsConvenience SamplesSamples of individuals who are most readily available perhaps even Introductory Psychology studentsPrimary Search SettingsLaboratory Research includes any study conducted in an environment controlled by the researcher1Naturalistic Research takes place where the behaviour would typically occur2Ecological ValidityThe degree to which the results of laboratory study can be applied to or repeated in the natural environmentEx if the effects of a cognitive improvement CD were studied by bringing volunteers into the laboratory and measuring their ability to solve problems the results might not generalize well to a classroom where the students are taking real tests for real gradesHawthorne EffectIs a term used to describe situations in which behaviour changes as a result of being observedDemand CharacteristicsInadvertent cues given off by the experimenter or the experimental context that provide information about how participants are expected to behaveSocial DesirabilityAka Socially Desirable Responding which means that research participants respond in ways that increase the chances that they will be viewed favourablyPlacebo EffectA measurable and experienced improvement in health or behaviour that cannot be attributable to a medication or treatmentTechniques that Reduce Anonymity means that each individuals responses are recorded without any name or other personal information that could link a particular individual to specific results1BiasConfidentiality means that the results will be seen only by the researcher2SingleBlind StudyThe participants do not know the true purpose of the study or else do not know which type of treatment they are receiving ex a placebo or a drugDoubleBlind StudyA more effective technique in which neither the participant nor the experimenter knows the exact treatment for any individualthese above techniques server to reduce biasPe
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