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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Exam Notes - PSYA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 6 LearningBY DAVE S 2014Monday July 7 20141140 PM61 Classical Conditioning Learning by AssociationLearningIs a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experienceCognitive LearningTo many people the term learning signifies the activities that students od reading listening and taking tests in order to acquire new informationthis process which is known as Cognitive learning is just one type of learningAssociative LearningAnother way that we learn is by associative learning which is the focus of this moduleYou probably associate certain holidays with specific sights sounds and smells or foods with specific flavors and texturesClassical ConditioningLearning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulusIn Pavlovs experiment the neutral stimulus was the sound of the tone which was paired with meat powder that could by itself elicit salivationPavlovian ConditioningClassical conditioning also referred to as Pavlovian conditioning influences many other responses as well and occurs in a variety of settingsStimulusIs an external event or cue that elicits a responseStimuli such as food water pain or sexual contact elicit different types of responsesUnconditioned stimulus USIs a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learningThe unconditioned part of the unconditioned stimulus refers to the fact that it can elicit a response in the absence of anylearningUnconditioned response URIs a reflexive unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulusIn Pavlovs experiment meat powder elicit unconditioned salivation in his dogsConditioned stimulus CSIs a once neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulusConditioned response CSIs the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulusAfter being repeatedly paired with the US the once neutral tone in Pavlovs experiment became conditioned stimulus because it elicited the conditioned response of salivationTo establish that conditioning has taken place the tone CS must elicit salivation in the absence of food USAcquisitionIs the initial phase of learning in which a response is establishedThus in classical conditioning acquisition is the phase in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the USIn Pavlovs experiment the conditioned salivary response was acquired with numerous tonefood pairingsExtinctionIs the loss or weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur togetherFor the dog is Pavlovs experiment if atone is presented repeatedly and no food follows then salivation should occur less and less until eventually it may not occur at allSpontaneous RecoveryIs the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response typically after some time has passed since extinctionGeneralizationIs a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different though similar stimuliIn Pavlovs experiment dogs salivated not just to the original tone CS but also to very similar tonesDiscriminationWhich occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulusConditioned Emotional ResponseConsists of emotional and physiological responses that develop to a specific object or situationPreparednessRefers to the biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuliSuch as the finding the we learn to fear snakes more readily than either flowers or gunsConditioned Taste AversionA conditioned taste aversion is the acquired dislike or disgust of a food or drink because it was paired with illnessIn these situations a taste CS causes the illness USGetting sick is the URThe CR is the nausea and other signs of disgust in response to the CS tasteLatent inhibitionOccurs when frequent experience with a stimulus before it is paired with a US makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illnessFor example a child who is clawed by the family cat after years of otherwise friendly interaction is less l
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