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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Exam Notes - PSYA01

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 7 MemoryBY DAVE S 2014Friday July 18 2014314 PM71 Memory SystemsStoresRetain information in memory without using it for any specific purposesthey essentially serve the same purpose as hard drives serve for a computerThere are 3 storesSensory Memory which moves into either STMLTM1STM Short Term Memory2LTM Long Term Memory3Control ProcessesShift information from one memory store to anotherInformation enters the sensory memory store through vision hearing and other senses and the control process we call attention selects which information it will pass on to STMEncodingSome information in STM goes through Encoding the process of storing information in the LTM systemRetrievalBrings information from LTM to STMSensory memoryIs a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of time Sensory memory holds iconic memory and echoic memoryIconic MemoryThe visual form of sensory memory usually held for about onehalf to one secondEchoic MemoeryThe auditory form of sensory memory usually held for considerably longer but still about 5 secondsWhole Report and Partial Report One interesting way to detect iconic memory is by comparing 2 condition in a memory experiment the whole report vs the partial report conditionsConditionIn the whole report condition researchers flash a grid of letters on a screen for a split second and participants attempt o recall as many as possible the whole screenIn partial report condition researchers again flash a set of letters on the screen but the display is followed immediately by a tone that is randomly chosen to be low medium or highAfter hearing the tone participants report the corresponding line middle bottom or ttopSTM Short Term MemoryA memory store with limited capacity and duration less than a minuteLTM Long Term MemoryA memory store that holds information for extended period of time if not permanentlySerial Position EffectIn general most people will recall the first few items from a list and the last few items but only an item or two from the middleFinding holds true for many types of information ranging from simple strings of letters to the ads you might recall after watching the super bowlPrimary effectThe first few items are remembered easily because they have begun the process of entering LTM primary effectThen they begin to produce proactive interferenceProactive InterferenceThat is the first information learned eg A list of words occupies memory leaving fewer resources left to remember newer informationRecency effectYet we also remember the last few items because they still reside in our STM a pattern referred to as the recency effectThese last few items on the list create retroactive interferenceRetroactive InterferenceThat is the most recently learned information over shadows some older memories that have not yet made it into longterm memoryRehearsalOr repeating information until you do not need to remember it anymoreWorking MemoryIs a model of shortterm remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information fora short period of timeThis includes new information such as the specific phone number that will win 98 for you as well as keeping track of the traffic patternsThe working memory model for shortterm remembering can be subdivided into 3 storage componentsPhonological Loop1Is a storage component of working memory that relies on rehearsal and stores information as sounds or an auditory codeVisuospatial Sketchpad2Is a storage component of working memory that maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a visuospatial codeEpisodic Buffer3That is a storage component of working memory that combines the images and sounds from other 2 components into coherent storelike episodesEx I was driving to a friends house when I heard the radio DJ give a number to callCentral ExecutiveIs the control center of working memory it coordinates attention and the exchange of inform
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