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Chapter 6

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Psychology NotesChapter 6 LearningLearning is the collection of different techniques procedures and outcomes in which changes an organisms behavioursLearning involves the acquisition of new knowledge skills and responses from experience that result in permanent change of the state of the learnerLearning is based on experienceLearning produces permanent changes in an organismJohn B Watson kick started the behaviorist movement by arguing not to use terms consciousness mental states mind content introspectively verifiable imageryIvan Pavlov implanting test tubes cheeks of dogs to measure salivary responses to foods Nobel prize 1904Classical conditioning occurs when neutral stimulus bellnatural stimulus foodresponse salivationunconditioned stimulus US Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism food dogssalivationunconditioned response UR Reflexive reaction that is reliably produced due to an unconditioned stimulusconditioned stimulus CS a neutral stimulus that initially produces no reliableresponse in an organismconditioned response CR reaction resembling unconditioned response yet produced by conditioned stimulusJohn B Watson proposed that an organism experiences events or stimuli that are observable and measurable and changes in that organism can be directly observed and measuredAcquisition phase of classical conditioning when the CSUS are presented togetherSecondorder conditioning conditioning where the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learningExtinction the gradual elimination of a learned response when US is no longer presentedSpontaneous recovery the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest periodGeneralization CR is observed even though CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisitionDiscrimination capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuliRobert Rescorla and Allan Wagner were the first to theorize that classical conditioning only occurs when an anim
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