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Chapter Three Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA01H3 Chapter Three: - Darwin came up with concept of biological evolution - biological evolution: changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time -> argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means - adaptive significance: effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions - novelty seeking: tendency to engage in behaviours that lead to new experiences - psychologists interested in understanding both ultimate causes and proximate causes of behaviour - ultimate causes: events and conditions that, over successive generations, have slowly shaped the behaviour of our species - proximate causes: namely immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour - Darwin then became interested in artificial selection - artificial selection: procedure i which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics - natural selection: the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially -> within a given population, some animals - the survivors - will produce more offspring than will other animals -> Alfred Wallace proposed same idea as well - natural selection based on 2 premises: 1) individuals within a population, show variability in heritable behavioural and physical characteristics 2) the capacity of the environment to sustain a population of any species, is limited; producing competition - reproductive success: number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring - variation: the differences among members of a species, including physical characteristics and behavioural characteristics www.notesolution.com
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