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Chapter 2

This is a Study Guide for Chapter 2 of the Psychology Textbook: The Ways and Means of Psychology

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Aqdas Qasem Intro to Psychology I Textbook Notes Chapter 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology 2010-10-20 Part 1: The Scientific Method in Psychology (30) - The Scientific Method consists of a set of rules that dictate the general procedure a scientist must follow in his or her research; a set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments. - Psychologists conduct three major types of scientific research: naturalistic observation and clinical observation, correlation studies, and experiments. Naturalistic Observation and Clinical Observation (31) - Naturalistic observation: observation of people or animals in their natural environment. This method is least formal and constrained by fewest rules. - Clinical observation: the observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment. - Naturalistic provides foundation for natural sciences - Examples: Darwins observation and classification of animals for theory of evolution & Maria Montessori used this method for her ideas about child development by watching children in a classroom & Paul Broca suggested that language was located in a specific region of the brain after treatment of a stroke victim. Correlational Studies (31) - Correlational Study: The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals. - Observational in nature but involves more formal measurement of environmental events, of individuals physical and social characteristics, and of their behaviour. Experiments (31) - Experiments: a study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables. Five Rules of the Scientific Method for Experiments (31) 1) Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relations among variables. 2) Design the experiments. The independent variable must be manipulated and the dependent variable must be observed. Independent variable must be controlled to ensure that it is the only variable that is causing the dependent variable to change. 3) Perform the experiment. 4) Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study. Do the results support the hypothesis, or do they suggest that it is wrong? 5) Communicate the results. Example: writing and publishing a journal or share findings at conference and conventions to other psychologists. Step #1: Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research (32) Page 1 www.notesolution.com
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