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Canada (158,358)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 3: Evolution, Heredity and Behaviour The Development of Evolutionary Theory -organisms originate and become adapted to their environment by biological means -biological evolution changes in genetic and physical characteristics of a population or a group of organisms over time -adaptive significance effectiveness in aiding the organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions -ultimate causes (past environmental conditions) events and conditions that over successive generations, have slowly shaped the behaviour of our species -proximate causes (immediate environment) immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour -evolutionary psychology an organisms evolutionary history contributes to the development of behaviour patterns and cognitive strategies related to reproduction and survival during its lifetime -culture sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs and behaviour pattern common to a particular group of people The Voyage of the Beagle -essentialism all living things belong to a fixed class, an essence that characterizes it alone The Origin of Species -artificial selection particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics -natural selection consequence of organisms that reproduce differentially -in a population, some members of a species produce more offspring than others -animal that possesses a characteristic that helps it to survive or adapt to changes in its environment is likely to live longer and to produce more offspring than are animal that do not have this characteristic Natural Selection -Evolution traced to four insights 1) Species are not fixed, but change over time 2) Evolution is a branching process, all species descend from a single common ancestor 3) Evolution is continuous with gradual changes 4) based on natural selection -individuals show variability in heritable behavioural and physical characteristics -capacity of environment to sustain a population of any species is limited, produce competition -individual with characteristics that compete better are more likely to survive and reproduce -characteristics are heritable, would likely to appear in next generation -reproductive success is ability to produce offspring www.notesolution.comnumber of viable offspring it produces relative to the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species -survival of the fittest does not mean survival of the most physically fit or strongest factor of physical strength is less than reproductive success Variation -variation is differences among members of a species, including physiology and behaviour -genotype is genetic makeup -phenotype is physical characteristic and behaviour -genotype determines how much the environment can influence an organisms development and behaviour 1) evolution occurs over the long run, natural selection produces changes in short run 2) phenotypic variation produce selective advantages that affect survival Competition -competition within the species for food, mates and territory -competition between species, do not compete for mates -competition for other resources indirectly influences reproductive success because the ability to find and court a suitable mate depends on the ability to stake out and defend a territory that has an adequate food supply -overtime, competition for food and other resources will allow only the best-adapted phenotypes and their corresponding genotypes to survive evolutionary change The Development of Evolutionary Theory -proximate causes of behaviour are how animals adapt to environmental changes through learning -ultimate causes of behaviour are historical events and conditions in the evolution of a species that have shaped its behaviour -evolutionary psychology is how evolution and genetic variables influence adaptive behaviour -natural selection is the tendency of some members of a species to produce more offspring than other members do -variation is members of species vary genetically, such that some possess specific traits to a greater or lesser extent than other individuals do -survival of the fittest is traits that give animal a competitive advantage over other, then animal is also more likely to have a greater reproductive success Heredity and Genetics -genetics is structure and functions of genes how they are transmitted from one generation to another how they operate in populations genetic makeup influences physical and behavioural characteristics -heredity is the sum of traits and tendencies inherited from a persons parents and other biological ancestors -Darwin did not know how adaptations were passed from parent to offspring www.notesolution.com
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