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PSYA01 Ch 4

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Steve Joordens

Ch 4 Biology of Behaviour 86126The brain contains 10100 billion nerve cellsNerve cells of the brain are organized into modulesclusters of nerve cells that commn w each other that are connected to other neural circuitsStructure of the Nervous SystemThe brain is responsible for 1 Controlling bhvr 2 Processingretaining info we receive f envt 3 Regulating bodys physiological processesCentral nervous system the brainthe spinal cordSpinal cord a long thin collection of nerve cells attached to the base of the brainrunning the length of the spinal column can control reflexesNerve a bundle of fibres that transmits info btw the central nervous systemthe bodys sense organs musclesglandsPeripheral nervous system the cranialspinal that part of the nervous system peripheral to the brainspinal cordCranial nerve a bundle of nerve fibres attached to the base of the brain conveys sensory info f the faceheadcarries messages to musclesglandsSpinal nerve a bundle of nerve fibres attached to the spinal cord conveys sensory info f the bodycarries messages to musclesglandsThe brain has 3 major parts 1 Brain stem controls physiological functionsautomatic bhvrs includes the medulla ponsmid brain 2 Cerebral hemisphere the largest part of the brain covered by the cerebral cortexcontaining parts of the brain that evolved most recently 3 Cerebellum a pair of hemispheres resembling the central hemispheres but much smallerlying beneathin back of them controlscoordinates posturemovements Vertebra a column of hollow bones that encases the spinal cordconstitutes the vertebral column Meninges the 3layered set of membranes that enclose the brainspinal cord Cerebrospinal fluid CSF this liquid fills the space btw 2 of the meninges in which the brainspinal cord float provides a shockabsorbing cushionBloodbrain barrier a barrier btw the bloodand the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brains capillaries prevents some substances f passing f the blood into the brainCerebral cortex the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain abt 3 mm thick perceptions take place memories are stored plans are formulatedexecuted Grey matter the portions of the nervous system that are abundant in neurons rather than axon appears grey White matter layer of nerve fibres that connect the nerve cells in the cerebral cortex to other parts of the brain the portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in axon than neurons the white clr derives f the axons myelin sheaths Gyri the bulges of the cerebral cortex Fissures the large grooves of the cerebral cortexexpands the surface area of the cortex to accommodate increasing neurons Nerve fibres transmits messages through the nerve f a sense organ to the brain or f a brain to a muscle or glandCells of the Nervous System
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