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PSYA01 Ch 7

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Steve Joordens

Ch 7 LearningBehaviour Learning an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular bhvr is changed by experience Learning cannot be observed directly it can only be inferred f changes in bhvr Performance the bhvrl change produced by the internal changes brought by learning evidence that learning has occurred Orienting response any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs eyes ears nose toward the source of a new stimulusIe we become alertturn our heads toward the source of a scream Habituation the simplest form of learning learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly makes sense f an evolutionary perspective bc responding to every unimportant stimulus wastes timeenergy Shorttermlongterm habituation Classical conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict a significant event will occur Ie Conditioned bhvr can be seen while watching a horror film once you hear frightening music you anticipate some menace will soon occur your fear is the bhvr that shows you have learned the predictive relsh btw the musicupcoming fright Pavlov conducted experiments w dogsdisd a form of learning in them that a stimulus predicts the occurrence of anotherIn this case the appearance of the lab assistance predicted the appearance of food Somehow neutral stimuli came to control what is usually a normal reflexive bhvr Classical conditioning the process by which a response normally elicited by 1 stimulus the unconditional stimulus UCS comes to be controlled by another stimulus the conditional stimulus CSCauseandeffect relation Unconditional stimulus USC in classical conditioning a stimulus such as food which naturally elicits a reflexive response such as salivation Unconditional response UCR in classical conditioning a response such as salivation that is naturally elicited by the UCSConditional stimulus CS in classical conditioning a stimulus that bc of its repeated association w the UCS eventually elicits a conditional responseConditional response CR in classical conditioning the response elicited by the CSClassical conditioning does 2 things 1 The ability to learn to recognize stimuli that predict the occurrence of an important even allows the learner to make the appropriate response fastermore effectively seeing a rival increases an animals heart rateblood flow causing it to release hormones in prep for fight2 Stimuli that were previously unimportant acquire some of the properties of the important stimuli w which they have been associatedthus become able to modify bhvr Only w CSUCS pairings does conditional responding gradually appearAcquisition in classical conditioning the time during which a CR first appearsincreases in frequency the learning phase 2 factors that influence the strength of the CR are the intensity of the UCSthe timing of the CSUCS Extinction in classical conditioning the elimination of a response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented wo being followed by the UCS
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