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PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes for Midterm

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Steve Joordens

PSYA01Fall2011 Chapter 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology The Scientific Method o Scientific method a set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experimentso Naturalistic observation the observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environment o Clinical observation the observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment o Naturalistic observation and clinical observation are 2 methods which are constrained by the least rules and they are the least formalo Ex Paul Broca suggested that language was located in a specific area of the brain after he treated a man who had lost his ability to speak o Ex Maria Montessori formed many of her ideas about child development by watching children in a classroom o Correlational studies the examination of relations between 2 or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals o Experiment a study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the vvalue of a dependent variable only experiments can confirm the existence of cause and effect relations among variableso 5 rules of scientific method o 1 identify the problem and formulate a hypothetical cause and effect relations among variablesidentify variables and describe relationships between them o 2 design the experimentshould involve manipulation of independent variable and observation of the dependent variableseach variable must be operationally defined conceptsspecific variables o 3 perform the experimentobservations are recorded o 4 evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study step involves special mathematical procedures used to determine whether an observed effect is statistically significant what are the chances of your result being due to chance o 5 communicate the resultswrite article send to journals journal edited and possibly publishedin addition researchers present their finding at conferences and professional conventionsIdentifying the Problem Getting an Idea for Research o Psychological research in Canada has been supported by Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and the Health Research Council Hypotheses o A statement usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively expresses cause and effect relationship between 2 or more events Theories o A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena more encompassing than a hypothesis o A good theory generates a testable hypothesis 1
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