Textbook Notes (362,734)
Canada (158,032)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA01H3 (1,192)
Steve Joordens (1,048)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 3 evolution heredity and behaviour Development of evolutionary theorySurvival belongs to the fittestBiological evolution changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over timeMany behavioural differences among organisms correspond to genetic and biological differencesAdaptive significance its effectiveness in aiding the organism to adapt to changing environmental conditionsNovelty seekingtendency to engage in behaviours that lead to new experiences To understand it we must understand both past and present conditions that influence itUltimate causes events and conditions that over generations have shaped behaviour women like strong menProximate causes namely immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour bill gates proposingSexual behaviours of gerbils are different when testosterone is secreted by the gerbils brothers as opposed to when the gerbil is next to sisters uninterested in femalesCaused by two breeding strategies one is a good sexual performer one is a good fatherBoth biology and environment contribute to our personal developmentCulture the sum of socially transmitted knowledge customs and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of peopleThe voyage of the beagle18311836 captain Fitz Roy told Darwin to accompany him in the HMS beagle The mission was to explore the coast of south america and make hydrographic measurementsHe observed flora and fauna of south america australia south africa islands of the pacific Galapagos islandsHe mainly collected species and came up with theory later onOrigin of speciesArtificial selection a procedure in which animals are bred to produce desirable characteristicsAnd he thought that nature must have a way to select the best as well Natural selection some animals produce more offspring than will others Any animal that possesses a characteristic that helps it to survive and adapt quickly will likely live longer and produce more offspring Wallace also came up with the same ideasNatural selection 1 Species are not fixed change over time with environment 2 evolution branching process all came from one ancestor 3 evolution is continuous with gradual changes over generations 4 evolution based on natural selectionVariation and competition are two huge factorsReproductive success number of viable offspring it produces compared to offsprings produced by members of the same speciesVariationDifferences among members of a species size strength physiology behaviourintelligence sociabilityGenotype genetic makeupPhenotype outward expression of an organisms genotype physical characteristics and behaviourPhenotype is produced by interaction of genotype with the environment determines how much the environment can influence an organisms development and behaviourIdentical twins have same genotypeFinches with smaller beaks for small seeds and larger for big nuts When rainfall occured small seeds were abundants so these finches had a n advantage and so Grant discovered that 1 evolutiion occures over long run natural selection over short run 2 variation in phenotypes can produce important selective advantages that affect survival Variation is important if small beak finches took over and a drought came upon them then the whole species would be extinctCompetitionCompetition for food mates and territory is inevitableWhen members vie for similar ecological resources like food and territoryChanges can be measured based on correlational methods Heredity and geneticsGenetics study of structure and functions of genes how they are transmitted from one generation to another and how they operate in populations And how the genetic makeup influences behaviour and appearanceHeredity sum of the traits and tendencies inherited from a persons parents and ancestorsSix years after origin of species Gregor Mendel crossbread pea plantsStudy of genetics tells us about our society ant the extent to which differences among us are due either to the culture we grew up in or to the ancestors we haveBasic principlesDNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953Gene small units of dna that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes location of a particular sequence of nucleotieds along the DNA Some genes contain a short sequence of nucleotides or millionsGenome total set of genetic material Human genome has 24 different dna molecules in women and 25 in men and 30 000 genes Genes influence behaviour and physical characteristics through protein synthesisSequence of three nucleotides correspond to a particular amino acidthere are no genes for behaviour but physiological processes related to behaviourthey also direct the synthesis of enzymes which govern the processes that occur within every cell in the bodynoncoding genes do not effect protein synthesis by regulate processes of other genes that synthesize proteins and so it can effect evolutionChromosomes and mesiosischromosomes threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells containing genes We inherit 23 genes from each parentsSex chromosomes chromosomes that contain the code for the development of sexual characteristicsFemales XX Males XYAutosomes are chromosomes that are not the sex chromosomesMeiosos cell division by which sperm and ova are formed Chromosomes within the cell are randomly rearranged so each contain 23 indv chromosomes
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.