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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 part 2.docx

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 8: Memory (Part 2) Narrative Stories and Songs -another useful aid to memory is to place info into a narrative, a mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are linked together by a story -Bower and Clark (1969) showed that even inexperienced people can use this method -experiment showed people in control group and people in narrative group can recall particular list immediately afterwards, but when all of the lists had been learned, recall of 120 words was superior in groups that created narrative stories -musiclike narrative, provides structure for info -songs that link melody to sequence of words could serve same role as the narrative elements of a story -advertisers use music with their messages believing it will improve its memorability -Wallace (1994) found that people who have chance to learn the melody of a song, learned the sung balad more quickly than the spoken version; changing melody after each verse failed to improve learning - effect might not be due to the structuring process -Kilgour, Jakobson, and Cuddy (2000) found that rate of word presentation was important in determining the advantage singing provides -when words were spoken at same rate they were sung, there wasnt improvement in learning text from hearing in sung -basis of this mnemonic: it slows rate at which you hear information, allowing you to encode the info better -not all info can easily be converted to mnemonic systems The Organization of Long-Term Memory -long-term memory organized in terms of different systemsdifferent kinds of info are encoded differently and stored in different ways, possibly in response to evolutionary pressures EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY -Endel Tulving suggested that there are 2 kinds of memory: 1) Episodic memory: provides us with a record of our life experiences -events stored that are autobiographical; specific things we have done, seen, heard, felt, tasted, etc. -tied to particular contexts: this mornings breakfast, my 15 th bday, etc 2) Semantic memory: consists of conceptual info; long-term store of data, facts & info, including vocabulary -contains info of the academic type -appear to interact with episodic memories Ex. When shopping, you undoubtedly remember kinds of items you usually buy. Your preference of yogurt is a fact about yourself that is recalled from semantic memory. Ex. When trying to decide whether its time to buy some yogurt, youd probably think of last time you looked in fridge. Remembering whether you had eaten last of yogurt is decision made from episodic memory. -distinction between episodic & semantic memory reflects fact that we make different uses of things weve learned: we describe things that happened to us or talk about facts weve learned -cant conclude episodic and semantic are different memory systems; may simply be different kinds of info stored in same system -many psychologists feel that episodic memory reflects a different system of brain than semantic -evidence: K.C. suffered a closed-head injury at age 30. As result, his ability to acquire new knowledge is severely impaired. General infosemantic memoryrelatively intact whereas as knowledge about his lifeepisodic memorycompletely wiped out. He can recall knowledge about algebra & history learned at school but not personal experiences such as bday parties he attended EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT MEMORY -for many years, most cognitive psychologists have studied memory as a conscious operation -recently, psychologists have come to appreciate fact that an unconscious memory system capable of controlling complex behaviours, also exists -psychologists use explicit memory and implicit memory when making this distinction -explicit memory: memory of which we are aware; we know that weve learned something, and we can talk about what weve learned with others (declarative memory) -implicit memory: memory of which we are unconscious; we cant talk directly about its contents (non-declarative memory or procedural memoryremembers how to skills such as bicycle riding) -contents of implicit memory can affect our behavioureven verbal behaviour -distinction between implicit and explicit memory is important because retrieval cues seem to influence implicit more than explicit, and the level of processing seems to influence explicit more than implicit -implicit memory appears to operate automatically; doesnt require deliberate attempts on part of learner to memorize something-implicit doesnt seem to contain facts; instead, it controls behaviours ex. riding a bike THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF LONG-TERM MEMORY -psychologists agree that long-term memory involves more or less permanent changes in the structure of brain -recently, functional imaging studies with humans help determine which parts of brain become active when we learn or remember particular kinds of memories Human Anterograde Amnesia -damage to particular parts of the brain can permanently impair peoples ability to form new long-term memoriesphenomenon known as anterograde amnesia -brain damage can be caused by effects of long-term alcoholism, severe malnutrition, stroke, head trauma, or surgery -in most cases, people with anterograde amnesia can remember events that occurred prior to damage, but cant remember what has happened since that time ex. Cant remember names of people they meet, even if they see them daily for years -in 1953, when H.M. was 27, a neurosurgeon removed part of the temporal lobe on both sides of his brain to alleviate very severe epilepsy. The surgery cured the epilepsy but caused anterograde amnesia. -since operation, H.M. has been unable to learn anything new; he cant identify by name people he
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