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Chapter 10-12

Chapters 10-12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

PSYA02 Textbook Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 12 Chapter 10: Language Speech branch of psychology devoted to study verbal behaviour. Speech is social, it is learned and used in interaction with others. We Comprehension Psycholinguistics extract words from a stream of speech. Our auditory systems recognize patterns underlying speech. Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad: used fMRI scans to find that some regions of the brain responded more to human vocalizations rather than just other natural sounds. Left hemisphere showed larger contrast and thus, it plays a larger role in analyzing speech. Phonemes: elements (smallest units) of speech. Eg: pin is three phonemes p+i +n. o Voice-onset time: a way in which we discriminate among phonemes. It is the delay between the initial consonant sound and vibrating vocal chords (voicing). Eg: there is a delay in voicing for pa compared to ba although the initial sound (made with the mouth) is the same. o Phonemic discriminations initially occur in both hemispheres. Some areas of the brain in the left hemisphere respond solely to intelligible speech even if it is highly distorted. o Our ability to recognize highly distorted speech supports that our perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it (Ganong). We recognize speech sounds in larger chunks such as syllables. Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in a language Sanders, Newport, and Neville: played a continuous string of nonsense syllables to listeners. Chunks of this stream were given to participants to study as words. When the string was played once again the N100 response (electrical signal that occurs when a word is first recognized) showed up. Context affects word perception through top-down processing. Syntaxgrammar: all languages follow certain principles called syntactical rules: grammatical rules for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. o Syntax is learned implicitly and is automatic. Involves different brain mechanisms than learning word meanings.l o Syntactical clues are designed by: Word order: tell us who does what do whom (in English), for example A Xs the B: A does something to B. Word class: grammatical categories such as noun and verb. Function words: adds little meaning but conveys important information about the sentences structure such as prepositions www.notesolution.comPSYA02 Textbook Review Notes - Chapters 10 to 12 and articles. When they are omitted, we can often guess at function words. Content words: express meaning such as nouns and verbs. Content words express meaning and function words express the relationships between the content words. Affixes: Sounds we add to beginning (prefix) or ends (suffix) of words. Adding affixes to nonsense words make them seems more like sentences (Epstein). Semantics: the meaning represented by words. Prosody: using changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech. Important for emotion. In writing, syntactical clues and interfere with prosody producing brain activity similar to that of unexpected experiences. Syntax is necessary but not sufficient for semantics. Things can make syntactical sense but we may not extract meaning from it. Likewise, semantics requires syntax for the entire picture. We remember what is meant in sentences but quickly forget their form. Chomsky (linguist) suggested a model: o Deep structure is the essential meanings of a sentence. It is converted to speech by adding surface structure (grammatical features). o This model is not generally accepted by psychologists. Aphasia: loss of language, recognition or comprehension or both. o Conduction aphasia: difficulty repeating words and phrases, but they are comprehended. Retain deep structure but not surface structure. Pragmatics is knowledge of the world. Used in conversations and is involved in speech comprehension. Scripts: characteristics of typical situations that assist in comprehending a verbal discourse. A conversation can bring up certain scripts in the listener so the speaker can convey information without all the gritty details. Areas important for speech: o Brocas area: motor association cortex in left frontal lobe. Speech production occurs here. Sign language users also show activity in this area, meaning it is for more than just speech production. Damage here (extending to underlying white matter) causes Brocas aphasia which involves severe difficulty articulating words, especially function words. Agrammatism: inability to properly use or comprehend function words and grammatical features. Comprehension of word order, for example, is affected in Brocas aphasia. www.notesolution.com
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